Indeed, some of the early work in computer algebra came from quantum field theory--one of the first computer algebra systems was Veltman's Schoonschip for performing field theoretic computations that led to the theory of

electroweak unification [20].

The Higgs boson plays a crucial role in our world - it provides mass to the Z and to the related W particles through a mechanism known as

electroweak symmetry breaking.

The idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the world of elementary particles was actively developed by theoretical physicists, and subsequently the Higgs mechanism of violation of

electroweak symmetry also grew out of it.

For the strong nuclear force there is quantum chromodynamics and for electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force there is the

electroweak interaction.

To celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, in Geneva, protagonists in current particle physics debates about the theory of

electroweak unification--known primarily as The Standard Theory--weigh in from their various corners.

This observation not only pointed to connections between quantum theory and the general theory of relativity but also the unification of the gravitational force with electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and

electroweak forces before the highly dense seed of our universe became unstable and erupted into the 'Big Bang.

Objective: The Standard Model (SM) of

electroweak and strong interactions, supplemented by neutrino masses, provides an extremely successful description of all available experimental data in elementary particle physics.

The seminar was jointly organised by the university's Jones Physics Society, Salam Chair and the Pakistan Physical Society to pay tribute to the Pakistan's only Nobel laureate in the field of science for his contributions to the landmark

electroweak unification.

Prof Dr Abdus Salam was the first Pakistani, to receive the Nobel Prize (Physics) in 1979 in recognition of his work on

electroweak unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces, he added.

The first was scientist Dr Abdus Salam who won the award in physics for his contribution to

electroweak unification.

Electroweak interactions of leptons and quarks and strong interactions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics theory are covered, with frequent reference to recent particle accelerator results such as research on neutrinos and the Higgs boson.

The new precise value of the top-quark mass will allow scientists to test further the mathematical framework that describes the quantum connections between the top quark, the Higgs particle and the carrier of the

electroweak force, the W boson.