Contrary to

electroweak theory, where it is possible to obtain precise results using perturbation theory, the order of precision obtained in QCD has been lower by orders of magnitude.

The triumph of the

electroweak theory edified a part of scholars to extend the Yang-Mill equations into the strong-nuclear fields, establishing the quantum chromodynamics (QCD for short).

One hundred papers from the August 2011 conference discuss neutrino and astroparticle physics,

electroweak theory, fundamental symmetries, test of standard model, heavy quark physics, non-perturbative QCD, and quantum gravity effects.

A unification of gravity in some analogous fashion to

electroweak theory would benefit from having a its field be of the same type.

Above the decoupling temperature, a large number of hot electrons in the background lead to the failure of the QED renormalization scheme at larger temperatures and the

electroweak theory has to be incorporated.

Among the topics are neutral current, physics at Z resonance, precision tests of

electroweak theory, deep inelastic scattering, jets and fragmentations, gluons, and jets in hadron reactions.

Pakistan already has an early connection to CERN through the late Abdus Salam, the sole Nobel laureate from Pakistan in science and one of the fathers of the

electroweak theory. CERN has been known to the scientific community of Pakistan since 1973 through the discovery of neutral currents which eventually led to the Nobel Prize for Salam.

Until the announcement of its discovery on July 4, 2012, the Higgs was the only missing element in the Standard Model of Physics, a model that Salam contributed to through his work on

electroweak theory -- decays instantaneously, so scientists had to confirm its existence through particles formed by its decomposition.

Among the topics are Yoji Totsuka (1942-2008) and the discovery of neutrino mass, statistical methods for selecting and estimating cosmological parameters, the role of sterile neutrinos in cosmology and astrophysics, physics at the Cornell electron storage ring, muon colliders and neutrino factories, the physics of cosmic acceleration, and unanswered questions in the

electroweak theory.

Now a pair of Dutch researchers has won the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics for finding a way to sidestep the absurdities, which led to tests and acceptance of the so-called

electroweak theory.

The

electroweak theory (see 1968) made it seem necessary for the weak interaction to involve three exchange particles, one positive (W+), one negative (W-), and one neutral (Z[degrees]).

It played a vital role in the discovery of de Broglie's wave theory of matter, the so-called Klein-Gordon equation (first discovered by Schrodinger), the Dirac equation of the electron, quantum electrodynamics, quantum

electroweak theory, and quantum chromodynamics.