Generally, an IVF process has multiple contact points, like oocyte retrieval, sperm collection/processing, oocyte stripping, ICSI or insemination, fertilization, embryo transfer, embryo vitrification
, and biopsy, and each of these stages is prone to miscommunication and mix-ups.
was performed using Kitazato vitrification kit with the use of high concentrations of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling to avoid detrimental ice crystal formation (20).
Compared with the traditional slow freezing method, the very fast method (embryo vitrification
) that is introduced recently includes an ultrafast cryopreservation that inhibits ice formation within the suspension which is transformed to a glass-like solid, avoiding damage to the cells or tissues.
Fertility preservation for breast-cancer patients using IVM followed by oocyte or embryo vitrification
Reprod Biomed Online 2010;21:566-71.
Levy, "Embryo vitrification
: French clinical practice analysis for BLEFCO," Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite, vol.
This increase in cooling rate reduces crystalline ice formation within and around small samples such as those found in X-ray crystallography and in oocyte and embryo vitrification
. The initial product release has been customized to the needs of protein crystallographers.
The turnaround time of sequencing is about 20 working days, so that embryo vitrification
and very low rate of embryo to plantlet conversion were the major problems observed in large-scale plant production in amla via somatic embryogenesis method.
Since the first successful embryo vitrification
(RALL & FAHY, 1985), the description of cryoprotectant associations, nontoxic and stable enough to avoid ice formation and preserve embryo viability, has been challenging.
It is understood the couple had undergone embryo vitrification
, which involves fast-freezing embryos in liquid nitrogen for storage and thawing them before implantation.
But the clinic, which was at the centre of another IVF mistake last year after it implanted a couple's last embryo into another woman, said the loss was a well-known complication of embryo vitrification
As a result, vitrification showed the higher survival rate and embryo development rate than that of slow freezing and there were no significant differences in embryo developmental rate and cell numbers during culture period of pronuclear embryo vitrification
. Further study regarding molecular structure and production of offspring using blastocyst produced by according to vitrification period is needed to achieve more accurate pronuclear blastocyst cryopreservation.