Although our preliminary findings suggest that clinical stage I NSGCT patients with lymphovascular invasion and pure embryonal carcinoma
may not need follow-up after 2 years given the negligible risk of relapse, our study was limited by the lack of its generalizability as it relied on our single-center's data.
A postoperative biopsy showed a pure embryonal carcinoma
with invasion of the spermatic cord and necrosis of more than 50% of its surface.
Intratubular nonseminoma is almost exclusively composed of embryonal carcinoma
and is believed to arise from reprogramming of GCNIS within the microenvironment of the seminiferous tubule.
OCT-4 is a reliable marker for both dysgerminoma and embryonal carcinoma
. But distinguishing between these two components will be difficult when they coexist in the same tumour.
Of those, seminoma (classical type), embryonal carcinoma
, and teratocarcinoma were reported in five, one, and one patient, respectively.
Less than 5 percent of ovarian cancers are germ cell tumors (GCT); embryonal carcinoma
is a particularly uncommon subtype of GCT.
The pure seminoma needs to be differentiated from malignant lymphoma and mixed germ cell tumor with embryonal carcinoma
and/or endodermal sinus tumor and/or choriocarcinomatous components and spermatocytic seminoma.
Pierce Jr., "Multipotentiality of single embryonal carcinoma
cells," Cancer Research, vol.
This patient was diagnosed with mixed germ cell tumor with predominant yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma
Literature reports the most common components of such tumors as dysgerminoma (80%), EST (Endodermal Sinus Tumor) (70%), immature teratoma (%53), choriocarcinoma (20%), and embryonal carcinoma
Other germ cell tumours included embryonal carcinoma
and immature teratomas which constituted of 5 cases (2.16%) each, mixed germ cell tumours and choriocarcinomas which constituted of 4 cases (1.73%) and 3 cases (1.30%) respectively out of the total 231 malignant tumours.
After orchiectomy (HP: embryonal carcinoma
, pT1), he had received 4 cycles of chemotherapy (BEP protocol: Cisplatin 75 mg/[m.sup.2]/d, day 1; Etoposide 130 mg/[m.sup.2]/d, days 1-3; Bleomycin 30 U/d, days 1, 8, 15) in another oncology center.