Initially, calving difficulty was scored on a five-point scale: 1, an easy spontaneous calving, without any help from man; 2, a relatively easy calving, with help from man or mechanical equipment; 3, a complicated calving with the use of much more force than usual and/or veterinarian's intervention; 4, a very complicated calving, including caesarean section, embryotomy
and damage to the cow or calf; and 5, an abortion.
It has a sympathomimetic effect and is 40 times more spasmolytic than papaverine.3,4 It is used in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon in human medicine and its primary use is to prevent pre-term labour and tocolysis.5 In 1961, the first beta adrenergic agonist drug to be used in tocolysis was IP.6 In 1965, Devries and Wilson stated that IP could be used in cattle and sheep for uterus relaxation in various obstetric situations such as, simple dystocia, embryotomy
and caesarean section (CS).2 In veterinary practice today, it is used especially in the treatment of equine navicular disease and laminitis.
Fetotomy or embryotomy
simply means cutting up of dead fetus, whether fetus is lying wholly or partially in uterus, into parts to reduce its size and hence facilitate per-vaginal delivery in considerably lesser intervention time (Ghuman, 2012).