Molecular spectroscopic studies of lichen substances 1: parietin and emodin
Rheum ribes contains vitamins (A, B1, B2 and C), some elements (potassium, magnesium and calcium) organic acids (citric acid and malic acid), anthraquinones (chrysophanol, physcion and emodin
), flavonoid compounds (quercetin, 5- desoxyquercetin, quercetin 3-0-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-0- galactoside and auercetin 3-0-rutinoside), and tannins (Tosun and Kizilay, 2003; Andic et al.
(1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione, [C.sub.15][H.sub.10][O.sub.5]) is a Chinese herbal anthraquinone isolated from some traditional Chinese herbs including Rhubarb and Polygonum cuspidatum.
Effects of emodin
extracted from Chinese Herbs on proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer and underlying mechanisms.
'Researchers would need to develop chemicals that have similar effects as emodin
, and see which if any of these could be used as a therapeutic drug,' said Ying Leng of the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica.
vera, administered orally, can enhance the release of the superoxide anion free radical in hemocytes by increasing phagocytosis due to immunostimulant substances (acemannans, glucomannans, aloctin A, and aloe emodin
) (Hu et al., 2003; Akev et al., 2015).
Of these, 8 compounds had [EC.sub.50] values <10 [micro]M, with rank order of potency ([EC.sub.50] values) of chlorfenapyr (1.93 [micro]M), FCCP (2.49 [micro]M), rotenone (4.04 [micro]M), 2-aminoanthraquinone (4.72 [micro]M), emodin
(5.24 [micro]M), niflumic acid (6.35 [micro]M), triethyltin bromide (6.46 [micro]M), and antimycin A (6.83 [micro]M).
Membrane-related effects underlying the biological activity of the anthraquinones emodin
The phytochemical analysis of Cassia occidentalis has indicated the presence of phenolic compounds such as apigenin, emodin
, aloe-emodin, rhein, and vitexin, which are responsible for the formation of metal nanoparticles (Figure 3) .
Zhang et al., "Emodin
ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury, involving the inactivation of NF-[kappa]B in mice," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.
(98% purity) was provided by National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products (Beijing, China).
In relation to antioxidant capacity, anthraquinone derivates are considered to be one of the major biologically active constituents of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin
, chrysophanol physcion, and danthron from the rhizomes of Rheum undulatum L.