His topics include the idea of progress in the French Enlightenment, John Stuart Mill and social and natural sciences, Mach's empirio-criticism
, Rudolf Carnap and philosophy as logical analysis, positivism and politics, and the positive mind and law.
After all, Ryman's painterly empirio-criticism
, the apex of a late-modernist painterly aesthetic, motivates at best only one half of Richter's own project.
Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-criticism. (6) Although (as he writes), "since 1934-35 [I] had had the impression that Neopositivism did not take sufficient account of the reality of scientific research" or the consequent "enrichment of our knowledge of the world," (7) he was not immune to its influence.
The reasons for this choice, which (as the philosopher himself admits) could have easily fallen on political economy, lie in the growing importance of scientific knowledge and the continued scarcity of "truly satisfying critical literature." (14) The introduction also contains a direct reference to Lenin and his Materialism and Empirio-criticism, described as an important work in the field of epistemology that has not yet received due attention.
In the specific paragraph on Materialism and Empirio-criticism, Geymonat stresses the theoretical meaning of this important work, which harshly criticises those who believe that they could "complete Marx" via reactionary ideals.
In explicit reference to Lenin, Geymonat also explains his use of the term "realism." It includes those conceptions that "admit--in one form or the other --the existence of something, i.e., reality that cannot be reduced to our cognitive acts, although it is revealed by them." (16) In his use of the term "realism," Geymonat reverses Lenin's choice in Materialism and Empiriocriticism, in which the author preferred the word materialism to realism, a term that according to Lenin had been "bedraggled by the positivists" (Materialism and Empirio-criticism 54).
"Lenin at the time was moving around Europe in exile and writing "Materialism and Empirio-criticism
In explorations of the debt to and departure from Hegelianism evident in Marx, translation of and engagement with Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-Criticism
, brushing up against Max Eastman in bitter debate, travels to Germany and Moscow, and connections with (although not membership in) the Communist Party of the United States, Hook solidified his philosophy in an activist appreciation of the Marxist/Dewey conjuncture.
He debated Marxism with his high school teachers, was active in a Communist youth group in 1919-23, helped translate Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-Criticism
in 1927 (the same year he got his Ph.D.