If the patient develops symptoms or tumour grows, then extended curettage is recommended.15 In case of multiple enchondromas
, patients should be monitored for malignancy and deformities should be corrected by appropriate osteotomies.
Geographic bone destruction can be seen in UBCs (Figure 11), LCHs, enchondromas
, and GCTs.3 Malignant tumors demonstrate rapid growth and infiltration causing more aggressive bone destruction.
Often the radiographic appearance of the lesion can provide a diagnosis and no further imaging will be required in cases such as non-ossifying fibromas, enchondromas
, and some osteochondromas (Figs.
Cases Age (yrs), Clinical summary sex 1 11, M Family h/o MHE, 9 mos mild pain and worsening limp with 2 mos palpable enlarging pelvic enchondromas
2 13, M Family h/o MHE, 6 mos h/o of painless enlarging osteochondroma of left distal femur 3 35, M Pelvic pain, difficulty in urination, and defecation 4 18, F Bilateral bone knee deformities and associated pain 5 60, F Known Ollier's disease with increased swelling and pain in the right middle finger 6 14, F Tumor on L coxa 7 30, F Multiple exostoses over the right elbow, the left knee, and cervical body of C6 on the right.
(Maffucci syndrome) Minagawa et al.
IDH mutations are also relatively common in enchondromas
, chondrosarcoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
Fibrous dysplasia, enchondromas
, osteochondromas, aneurysmal bone cysts, and eosinophilic granulomas are the most common benign pathologies arising from the bone or cartilage in childhood.
(7) Sporadic Haemangioma, venous malformations, cavernous lymphangiomas, dyschondroplasia, enchondromas
The differential diagnosis of hereditary multiple exostoses includes the enchondromatosis, which are a heterogeneous group of syndromes that present with multiple enchondromas
associated with pathological fractures, pseudarthrosis, limb shortening, malignant transformation risk, and scoliosis.
(2) Although they usually occur spontaneously, they may also arise as a result of malignant degeneration of an endochondroma, as seen in both Maffucci syndrome (a mesodermal dysplasia that causes enchondromas
and hemangiomas) and Ollier disease (which manifests as multiple enchondromas
Human OSs are arising in irradiated bone, in bone affected by Paget's disease, and in skeletal tumors (multiple enchondromas
, multiple osteochondromas, fibrous dysplasia, and chondorsarcomas) (34, 35).
are one of the most common benign bone tumors and can often be incidental findings on routine knee radiographs and MRI studies .