enclitic


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Related to enclitic: proclitic

enclitic

Enclitics are reduced or contracted forms of words. They are attached to the word that precedes them by an apostrophe, and they are dependent on that word for their meaning.
Enclitics generally consist of just one consonant sound and cannot stand on their own. In English, they are usually the unstressed forms of functional words such as auxiliary verbs, determiners, participles, and pronouns. As such, they have grammatical rather than lexical meaning (compared with suffixes, which create new words through inflection).
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en·clit·ic

 (ĕn-klĭt′ĭk)
n.
1. A clitic that is attached to the end of another word. In Give 'em the works, the pronoun 'em is an enclitic.
2. A clitic.
adj.
Of or relating to an enclitic or enclisis; forming an accentual unit with the preceding word.

[Late Latin encliticus, from Greek enklitikos, from enklīnein, to lean on : en-, on, in; see en-2 + klīnein, to lean; see klei- in Indo-European roots.]

en·clit′i·cize′ (-ə-sīz′) v.
en·clit′i·ci·za′tion (-ə-sĭ-zā′shən), en′clis·is (-klĭs-ĭs) n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

enclitic

(ɪnˈklɪtɪk)
adj
(Linguistics)
a. denoting or relating to a monosyllabic word or form that is treated as a suffix of the preceding word, as Latin -que in populusque
b. (in classical Greek) denoting or relating to a word that throws an accent back onto the preceding word
n
(Linguistics) an enclitic word or linguistic form
[C17: from Late Latin encliticus, from Greek enklitikos, from enklinein to cause to lean, from en-2 + klinein to lean]
enˈclitically adv
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

en•clit•ic

(ɛnˈklɪt ɪk)

adj.
1. (of a word) closely connected in pronunciation with the preceding word and not having an independent accent or phonological status.
n.
2. an enclitic word, as the form of are in we're.
[1650–60; < Late Latin encliticus < Greek enklitikós <*énclit(os), v. adj. of enklinein to cause to lean on (en- en-2 + klinein to lean1)]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
Translations

enclitic

[ɪnˈklɪtɪk] ADJenclítico
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

enclitic

nEnklitikon nt
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

enclitic

[ɪnˈklɪtɪk] adjenclitico/a
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995
References in periodicals archive ?
This is the case in late ancient Eastern Aramaic, where the Participle, whose morphology only inflects for gender and number but not person, is accompanied by an enclitic pronoun when expressing actions in the present time.
Matthews (dated 13-15 June 1964), which Tolkien placed in the same file as "Words, Phrases and Passages": "the archaic ring-inscription burzumishi is evidently made up of this stem + a particularizing suffix or 'article' um, and an enclitic 'preposition' ishi 'in, inside'" (Tolkien 2007: 12).
The author of this article finds it consistent to define the predication markers occurring with the aforementioned adnominal phrases as the enclitic manifestations of a concrete verb, the copula ul'ems, rather than affixes taken over from the verbal paradigms.
The first type of phrasal stressing is conditionally called proclitic, the second type enclitic. The ratio of enclitic phrases (calculated per 1000 of the lines) is a good way of differentiating authorship, e.g., the scenes belonging to Shakespeare and Fletcher in The Two Noble Kinsmen (1613).
"O mira virtus ingeni, / Novumque monstrum" is translated "O new born, wonderful and virtuous entity [or monster/creature]" (25), where every word is misconstrued: the noun virtus is mistaken for an adjective modifying monstrum, ingenium and the enclitic que are omitted, and although monstrum ("prodigy" or "miracle") in other circumstances could refer to a "monster," it is incomprehensible what beast would be referred to in this poem; it follows that "new born" should be just "new." Often Miller relies on an English translation by T.H.
[[C.sub.[alpha]]].sub.[mu]][C.sub.[alpha]] [right arrow] [C:.sub.[alpha]] - long consonants are found at the morpheme boundary between a consonant-final lexical stem or suffix and a suffix or enclitic beginning with the same consonant.
Also included are counts of "proclitic" and "enclitic" phrases.
And as to the sound, the O is enclitic; that is to say, it has no accent of its own, but is pronounced with the word to which it is attached, as if it were its unaccented first syllable....
One possibility is that T corresponds to the enclitic =arl, as assumed by the glossing so far.
I am unable to see how Yasomatiti (the proper name attached to the enclitic quotative iti to mark the title) could betray a Prakrit origin.