The clinical syndrome of HF may result from disorders of the pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
, heart valves, or great vessels, or from certain metabolic abnormalities, but most patients with HF have symptoms due to impaired left ventricular (LV) myocardial function.
However, two patients who presented with severe myocardial dysfunction (LVEF was 34% and 38%, respectively) upon diagnosis still displayed abnormal features, such as echo-dense papillary muscles and endocardium
, despite normal LVEF.
CHF is always a result of the underlying cardiac disease irrespective of whether it involves the myocardium, endocardium
with valvar apparatus, or pericardium.
RV free-wall thickness at end-diastole was measured from either the subcostal, coronal or parasternal-axis view, whichever view most clearly illustrated the RV epicardium and endocardium
To test whether this limitation of using PMRs for analysis might explain results for ALS and Parkinson's disease, a sensitivity analysis was conducted in which chronic disease of the endocardium
([dagger][dagger][dagger]) was used as a negative control outcome (i.
The last piece is turning cardiac progenitor cells to endocardium
cells (the heart's inner layer), and the researchers are making progress on that.
Increased von Willebrand factor in the endocardium
asa local predisposing factor for thrombogenesis in overloaded human atrial appendage.
10 Similar changes occur in elastic fibres of the blood vessels, Bruch's membrane of the eye, endocardium
and other organs.
31) Sites of infection include the cervix, urethra, and rectum, and less commonly, the pharynx, conjunctiva, joints, meninges, and endocardium
Because GCM usually has diffuse or multifocal involvement of the endocardium
, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) tends to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity in GCM than in cardiac sarcoidosis (35%) or lymphocytic myocarditis (25%).
Ischemia may result in the dispersion of electrical refractory periods between the endocardium
and epicardium, which is a requirement for multiple waves of re-entry.
These include stretching of the papillary muscles with ballooning prolapse of mitral leaflets (27), mechanical stimulation of the endocardium
by thickened chordate (28), coronary emboly caused by accumulation of platalets and fibrin as a result of endocardial friction (29), autonomic dysfunction (30,31) and repolarization changes characterized by prolongation in QT interval and increase in QT dispersion (7-9).