Some researchers have used the Heath-Carter method to classify individual athletes according to three essential elements, namely, endomorphy
(relative adiposity), meso morphy (the tendency for relative musculoskeletal development) and ectomorphy (the tendency to relative linearity), which results in the somatotype or biotype of the subject.
It was found that these studies assessed different age groups and the assessments were made with only three main somatotype classifications which consisted of endomorphy
, mesomorphy and ectomorphy.
Dancers were mostly ectomorphic-mesomorph (endomorphy
: 2.6 [+ or -] 0.54, mesomorphy: 3.99 [+ or -] 0.77, ectomorphy: 3.23 [+ or -] 0.54).
The wrestlers have very high values for the mesomorphic characteristic, low endomorphy
and ectomorphy, also there is no difference between Freestyle and Greco-Roman in terms of the ratings (Yoon, 2002).
dominance among non-athlete population in all the ranges of body mass index.
The three main components measured in somatotyping include endomorphy
, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy.
From the analysis of Table 2, referring to the somatotype presented by the total number of athletes (N = 27) in the present study, the highest mean was found for the second component, mesomorphy, followed by endomorphy
and ectomorphy, characterizing this group of gymnasts as mesoendomorphs.
= -0.7182+0.1451xZ-0.00068x[Z.sup.2]+ 0.0000014x[Z.sup.3] (1)
They found significant differences in terms of values of endomorphy
(p <0.01) and ectomorphy (p < 0.01).
Body Composition and Somatotype of Elite Male Wrestlers Characteristics Mean [+ or -] SD 95% CI Body Composition Percent Body Fat 13.6 [+ or -] 3.0 12.2-15.0 Absolute Body Fat, kg 9.1 [+ or -] 2.6 7.8-10.3 Sum of 6 Skinfolds, mm (a) 72.3 [+ or -] 29.3 58.9-85.6 Sum of 8 Skinfolds, mm (b) 100.5 [+ or -] 39.9 82.3-118.7 Muscle Mass, % 46.4 [+ or -] 2.2 45.4-47.4 Absolute Muscle Mass, kg 30.7 [+ or -] 4.6 28.6-32.8 Indexes Ponderal Index 41.0 [+ or -] 1.8 40.2-41.8 BAI (c) 25.1 [+ or -] 3.6 23.5-26.8 Somatotype Endomorphy
3.8 [+ or -] 1.5 3.1-4.5 Mesomorphy 5.3 [+ or -] 1.4 4.7-6.0 Ectomorphy 1.6 [+ or -] 1.0 1.1-2.1 X-axis 2.1 [+ or -] 2.3 1.1-3.2 Y-axis 5.2 [+ or -] 3.5 3.6-6.8 (a) Sum of triceps, subscapular, supraspinal, abdominal, front thigh, and medial calf.
Age (years) 37.3 (7) Weight (kg) 73.5 (8) Height (m) 175 (9) BMI (kg x [m.sup.-2)] 23.9 (2) Endomorphy
2.8 (0.9) Mesomorphy 4.5 (0.9) Ectomorphy 2.1 (1.0) Body Fat (%) 12.8% (2) gaaait Body Muscle (%) 48.2% (4) 6 skinfolds (mm) 67.7 (20) BMI = Body Mass Index.
The first component was 'endomorphy
,' the individuals high in this component are typified by softness and rounded quality is an underdevelopment of bone and muscle.