Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous
insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.
As to collect both endophagous
and exophagous Anopheles vectors that sought human blood meals, the outdoor collection was performed within a premise of 10-meter distance from the indoor collection.
In addition, aerial insecticide applications would probably not be effective because the damaging stage of the insect is endophagous
(Vigueras & Portillo 2001).
This species is an endophagous
egg parasite that has only been reported to parasitize the ootheca of the cockroaches Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), and Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister, 1838 (Blattodea, Blattidae) [19, 20].
Interactions between the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis and ectophagous and endophagous
insects on creeping thistle.
rate was defined as the proportion of mosquitoes captured indoors against the total of both indoors and outdoors collections from HLC.
The size of plant modules is an important feature that influences the preference (oviposition choice), and performance (survival, and pupal or adult biomass) of many guilds of endophagous
insect herbivores, such as gall formers, because plant size represents a quantity-quality indicator of resources (e.g., Price, 1991; Clancy et al., 1993; Cornelissen et al., 2008).
We believe that plant phenology may be one of the strongest forces of selection on endophagous
parasites such as leafminers.
(Itonididae), as well as of its endophagous
primary parasite Secondes coactus RATZB.
The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is an oligophagous herbivore whose endophagous
larvae feed gregariously on numerous Opuntia species (CaryophyHales: Cactaceae) (Mann 1969; Zimmermann et al.
polystichalis are somewhat similar, being endophagous
, and the larva cuts an operculum for eclosion of the adult.