This is often triggered by administration of common general anaesthetics, including Halothane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, Desflurane and Enflurane
(Campbell, 2015; Karlett, 1998) plus Succinylcholine (Lee & Wheeler, 1997; Redmond, 2001; Mitchell-Brown, 2012) and a newer medication Penthrox (Methoxyflurane), used to reduce pain (MIMS, 2015).
When comparing carbon dioxide to other anesthetic gases, it was found to be the most aversive gas for both mice and rats, with the least aversive being enflurane
and halothane for mice and halothane for rats (Leach et al., 2002a).
Additionally, the use of enflurane
should be avoided because of its seizure-like effects (5).
Effects of enflurane
, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane on reperfusion injury after regional myocardial ischaemia in the rabbit heart in vivo.
Several anaesthetic agents such as methohexital, etomidate, ketamine, enflurane
, thiopental and propofol are used for this purpose, but the ideal anaesthetic agent for ECT procedures remains unclear.
Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane
or isoflurane through circle system.
Airway irritation produced by volatile anaesthetics during brief inhalation: comparison of halothane, enflurane
, isoflurane and sevoflurane.
(14), it was determined that the [F.sub.A]/[F.sub.i] ratio and arterial blood concentration did not show any difference with the addition of [N.sub.2]O to enflurane
in the first five minutes; they claimed that the second gas effect is not a clinically valid concept.
The use of volatile agents, such as halothane and enflurane
, has led to significantly increased blood loss.
Ultrasonic electrocardiograph images were obtained with a Vevo 2100 high-resolution in vivo microimaging system (Visual Sonics, Canada) after rats were anesthetized through inhalation of 2% enflurane
as described previously; left ventricular anterior and posterior wall thickness (LVAW and LVPW) were measured and analysed [17, 18].
As with other [micro]-opioid agonists, morphine decreased the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of enflurane
in a dose-related manner in dogs (MURPHY & HUG, 1992).