The state responded by enserfing
the population in the mid-17th century--a move that opened up new prospects for developing the Russian economy in general and replenishing the state budget in particular.
These two crucial tools of coercion and surveillance were implemented mostly in the cities, but had the effect of denying peasants an escape from cooperatives, practically enserfing
them in the villages.
The Law Code (Ulozhenie) of that year did eliminate bonded peasants' last migratory rights, but the enserfing
of peasants had commenced centuries earlier; and even if state peasants are counted along with serfs, large portions of the peasantry would remain free for some time afterward.
In addition, the Ministry of Defense, rather than embracing a professional army, insists upon expanding conscription and enserfing
thousands of men as their ancestors were enserfed over a century ago.
Historians have also criticised her for giving away thousands of `free' peasants to her favourites and public servants, thus enserfing