The astrocytes' perivascular endfeet ensheathe
blood vessels tightly through transmembrane-anchoring proteins including AQP4, the potassium channel Kir4.1, and their adaptor proteins syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin [42-45].
The other types of cells in leech ganglia are two connective glial cells that surround the axons, a neuropil giant glial cell and six packet-glial cells that ensheathe the cell bodies of neurons.
One type corresponds to the giant glial cells which are single in each connective and ensheathe axons in this region between adjacent ganglia.
4B: aed) broad and short, curved ventrad, gradually narrowing towards apex, its wall thin, membranous, closely ensheathe
endophallic duct; endophallic duct (Fig.
Glycolysis is necessary for protein synthesis required for axon elongation, proliferation of macrophages, Schwann and other cells, and to allow Schwann cells to ensheathe
and myelinate axons (33, 35).
[S1P.sub.1] is expressed by mature SP cells, while S1P is produced by vascular endothelium as well as neural crest-derived pericytes that ensheathe
the blood vessels [6,103-105].
For example, myelin (a substance that ensheathes
many of the axons in our bodies to speed up the electrical signal conduction) contains proteins that inhibit the growth of the axons following injury.
Like the insulation found on electrical wires, myelin is a fatty tissue that ensheathes
the connections between nerve cells and ensures the crisp transmission of signals from one cell to another.
A unique cell type that supports and surrounds (ensheathes
) neurons within the nose (olfactory system) known as olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), that can be used for transplantation, can apparently repair a number of lesions in the central nervous system (CNS).
We talk a lot about proteins, but myelin--the substance that ensheathes
nerve fibers and is a main target of the attack--is primarily composed of lipids.
A recent study showed that a large fraction of neocortical myelin ensheathes
axons of local inhibitory neurons .
There is increasing evidence that, in addition to its insulating properties, myelin also provides metabolic support to axons, the wire-like nerve-cell extensions it ensheathes
. In MS, as myelin continually degrades, axons also degenerate, ultimately causing nerve cells to die off completely.