Has practically promoted beekeeping with Apis mellifera in terms of colony management, queen breeding, honey extraction techniques, reduction in post-harvest losses, nutrition, pests and diseases and pollination of entomophilous
crops, improving skills of beekeepers, wax recycling for wax foundation sheets through training to agricultural extension staff, beekeepers, universities, research institutes and technical training institutes.
Despite these differences, cycad pollen still possesses traits similar to anemophilous germplasm in that: a) it lacks a pollenkitt, a liquid fatty substance on the covering pollen grain that attracts insects in entomophilous
angiosperms; b) most have an orbicule, which is a small acellular structure of sporopollenin (Pacini et al., 1999); and c) it has a multi-layered, thick sporoderm (Pacini, et al., 1999), which enables it to withstand desiccation, possibly as a result of this gymnosperm's prolonged pollination period.
However, Oliveira (2002) observed that plants which received doses above 250 mg [L.sup.-1] of 2,4-D, presented symptoms of phytotoxicity, reducing the yield.This fact ratifies the observations that the productivities obtained through the system of parthenocarpic fruiting with the use of phytohormone are usually larger (around 50 to 200%) than the process of entomophilous
fruiting (Franco, 1999).
Isolation, identification and molecular phylogeny of a new Entomophilous
Identification of the pathogen was done by examining the conidia under the microscope MBI-15 (magnification 40x and 90x), measuring the spore size by an ocular micrometer MOB-1-15x, and following the keys of the "Guide to entomophilous
fungi of the USSR" (Koval 1974).
(Brassicales: Brassicaceae) is a common cross-pollinated plant and an insect-pollinated (entomophilous
) crop, and its nectar attracts flower-visiting insect pollinators.
Chong or Caralluma fimbriata is basically a cross pollinated specie and entomophilous
. So breeding methods used for cross pollinated species can be used for its breeding.
In order to evaluate the botanical origin of the honeys, records of the presence of pollen grains from nectariferous and non-nectariferous plants (entomophilous
and anemophilous ones) were also performed according to the literature (Barth, 1989, 2005).
They are mainly entomophilous
, with a minor role of wind pollination (FAEGRI & IVERSEN, 1989).
According to Pacini and Hesse (2005), this substance is usually secreted by angiosperms in most entomophilous
species with amoeboid or parietal tapetum and has important functions during the dispersal of pollen grains, participating in the adherence of pollen to the body of pollinators and the recognition of pollen on the stigma, as it also attracts protein molecules involved in this interaction.
Functional trait Functional traits and values type Photosynthesis pathway 1 Crassulacean pathway, 2 C3 pathway, 3 between C3 and C4 pathway, and 4 C4 pathway Nitrogen fixing 0 No nitrogen fixing, 1 Elaeagnaceae nitrogen fixing, and 2 Leguminosae nitrogen fixing Seed dispersal 1 Automatic spreading, 2 gravity spreading, 3 wind spreading, and 4 animals spreading Pollination method 1 Anemophilous, 2 entomophilous
Life form 1 Tree, 2 shrubs, 3 woody vine, 4 perennial herb, 5 biennial herb, and 6 annual herb Leaf form 1 Coniferous, 2 Broad leaf Plant height Measured value in cm Flowering date Beginning month of flowering Flowering period Flowering months TABLE 2: SOFM functional diversity values for 25 quadrats of Phellodendron amurense communities.