In contrast, neither entoproct
transcriptome produced clear TLR homologs, and the nemertean Malacobdella grossa produced only one questionable hit.
To date, the only uncontested fossil entoproct
comes from the Jurassic (205 to 142 million years ago).
This opposed-band feeding mechanism is described from some entoproct
larvae (Jagersten, 1964), although recent observations have cast doubt on that interpretation for another entoproct
larva (Haszprunar and Wanninger, 2008).
The band of compound cilia around the mouth could be pulled out into a pair of lateral loops, just like the loops of the prototroch on the entoproct
tentacles (Nielsen, 2001).
Detailed ultrastructural investigation of the entoproct
creeping larva revealed a number of shared characters with the molluscan groundpat-tern, including a distinct creeping foot with a ciliated gliding sole (see Fig.
Similar features were noted for the creeping larva of the entoproct
Loxosomella murmanica (Wanninger et al., 2007).
The purpose of this investigation was to describe thoroughly the sexual mode of one barentsiid kamptozoan (entoproct
), Barentsia hildegardae, by examining all three levels of colonial organization and monitoring them over time.
Although the SSC may have the best known marine fauna in Brazil (Migotto & Marques, 2006), at least 14 species found, 9.8% of the total, are new records (four polychaetes, two ascidians, one cnidarian, one bryozoan, one barnacle, two entoprocts
and three mollusks).
(Fernandez-Leborans & Gabilondo 2006, Fernandez-Leborans & Gabilondo 2008), nematodes (Normant et al.
Representatives of some phyla also share a trochophore larval stage (e.g., some polychaetes, sipunculids, vestimentiferans, echiurans, entoprocts
, and molluscs).
This idea might also apply to other spiralian taxa such as molluscs and entoprocts
. As their development is similar, they should be subject to similar effects of endodermal volume on midgut morphogenesis.