vowels and consonants may be inserted between the stem and the clitic , e.
21) Specifically, the variation consists in that: (i) the ending -en is dropped in favour of -n in case the segment it is added to ends in -el or -er (compare (sie) handeln, 3 psn pl of Present Indicative of the verb handeln 'to act', with (sie) kauften) in (23a) above; or (ii) an epenthetic
vowel -e- is added before most endings in order to avoid a large consonant cluster (note the Present Indicative forms arbeitest or arbeitet of the verb arbeiten 'to work', or the Past Indicative forms arbe-/tete, arbeitetest, arbeitete, arbeiteten,.
vowel is sometimes inserted by some speakers, to clarify otherwise adjacent consonants, as in "film" with an inserted schwa, [fil.
2002) add that "non-finite verb forms also include a TV followed by a specific marker for either the infinitive (-r-), the gerund (-nd-) or the past participle (-d-), which is followed by the so-called desinence in gerunds and past participles, and a plural suffix (preceded by a desinence sometimes analyzed as an epenthetic
vowel) in plural forms of nominalized infinitives" (p.
Following a consonant cluster, we find an epenthetic
vowel and voicing of the suffix initial, -CC- + *-tV- > -CCVtV-.
pro-forms, articles, verbs and misdecoded wh-words as part of interrogative constructions testify in favour of the phonology-grammar interface.
Students, parents, and educators are feeling the heat and suffering the consequences of an epenthetic
, unjustified weeklong break that has only created problems in our lives.
Table 1: Formal properties of PROX and OBV PROX OBV internal cliticization external cliticization (=): stress shift, (--): no stress shift; epenthetic
/a/ on no epenthetic
/a/; consonant-final hosts resyllabification with consonant-final host pronouns and articles only pronouns are are cliticized cliticized not obligatory (2) grammatically obligatory
As for the morphological structure of such items, a range of possibilities appears to be viable: for instance, gabsie (= talkative person) joins a noun (gab) and a diminutive suffix with an epenthetic
consonant, thus producing an almost iconic new item; grippie (= avaricious) exploits the same strategy, though the reduplication of
While one might be ready to entertain a lexical derivation of spurtle from Latin spatula (disregarding the phonological difficulty of the intrusive epenthetic
-r-), the latter tool is far in function from a stirrer, although spatula was so used in Latin in connection with mixing medications.
Something we observe in our everyday classes is that students add an e before the pre-initial consonant so as to constitute a different syllable where the epenthetic
e is the nucleus and then make the word pronounceable according to their L1 pronunciation rules.
This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic
consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used.