A standard meal offering, for instance, requires one-tenth of an ephah
of flour and a log of oil.
Regarding the meal offerings, Ezekiel notes several times that an ephah
of flour is offered together with each bull and ram, and as much as one wishes or can afford with each lamb.
They're concerned only with knowing the exact time the "holy days" are over so they can "diminish the ephah
, add to the shekel and fix [their] scales for cheating." They're heading in a different direction than their ancestors' covenant with Yahweh presumed they'd head.
Just balances, just weights, a just ephah
, and a just hin, shall you have; I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt (Leviticus 19).
Deuteronomy 10:21 shows a preoccupation with the object of praise, describing what God has done: "He is your praise; he is your God, who has done for you these great and awesome things that your own eyes have seen." Isaiah 42:8 talks of God's jealous expectations: "I am the LORD, that is my name; my glory I give to no other, nor my praise to idols." Isaiah 60:6, a prophecy involving the Gentiles, ties proclamation and praise together with deed: "A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian and Ephah
; all those from Sheba shall come.
No one will "make the ephah
small" or "falsify the balances" until there is buying and selling, "withhold the pledge" until there is loaning, "keep back the hire of the laborers" until there is a wage system, "justify the wicked for a reward" until men submit their disputes to a judge.
McConville observes that "the traders [here] want to make the ephah
[bushel] small when selling grain, and the shekel large, being a measure of the weight of the silver in which they will be paid" (2002, 372).
The prophet Amos also remonstrated the Jews for unethical business practices, including "making the ephah
(a dry measure) smaller and the shekel larger and falsifying the scales of deceit." (46)