Several algal samples collected during different phases of its growth were tested on Artemia salina and other model organisms from different taxa (other crustaceans, larvae and juveniles of sea urchins and polyps and ephyrae
of jellyfish) to understand how toxic effects vary with direct/indirect exposures and life cycle (Faimali et al., 2012; Privitera et al., 2012; Giussani et al., 2016).
"Some animals just heal their wounds; other animals regenerate what is lost; but the moon jelly ephyrae
don't regenerate their lost limbs.
Lychnorhiza lucerna presents a metagenetic life cycle (Schiariti et al., 2008) but its polyps and ephyrae
have never been found in their natural habitat (Schiariti, 2008).
were collected in chambers by an overflow system and fed as for the polyps.
In a study of cases of seabather's eruption in the Mexican Caribbean, Segura-Puertas et al (7) found that all 3 swimming stages of Linuche (ephyrae
, medusae, and larvae) to cause the eruption.
Under the proper conditions, these polyps metamorphose into a free-swimming stage, known as ephyrae
, in just six days.
17722 9-4194 454.4 15.86 76.9 Chrysaora 228 4-60 7.1 0.25 28.2 plocamia (ephyrae
) * Table 2.
aurita, we used ephyrae
and young medusae (less than 10 mm) as well as medusae.
plocamia from this group of species, which showed a marked increase in the ephyrae
(probably of C.
Medusae of this species are thought to be released as ephyrae
from benthic polyps residing in the Yellow and East China Seas during late spring and early summer, and the growing medusae are then transported into the Sea of Japan by the Tsushima Current (Kawahara et al.7 2006; Reizen and Isobe, 2006; Yoon et aL, 2008).
Similar observations have been made for scyphomedusae that develop from ephyrae
, characterized by bells with large clefts separating lappets, into adults with continuous bell morphologies (Higgins et al., 2008; Feitl et al., 2009).
Previous studies of ephyral prey capture by two semaeos-tome scyphomedusan ephyrae
, Aurelia aurita (Sullivan et al., 1997) and Cyanea capillata (Higgins et al., 2008), support the viability of the paddle hypothesis because those studies indicated that prey-containing water appeared to flow around, not through, the ephyral bell.