Modelling kidney disease with CRISPR-mutant kidney organoids derived from human pluripotent epiblast
The use of embryos with a high developmental potential is essential for successful IVF cycles. Although embryos are highly dynamic, and able to repair and compensate for structural damage or cell-number abnormalities they should maintain correct TE, epiblast
, and primitive endoderm formation to enable implantation and term delivery. Schoolcraft et al . previously recommended assessing blastocyst expansion, and ICM and TE grades as the best way to select embryos with a normal morphological structure, cell number, and cell distribution as viable candidates for transfer.
CAFSCs are induced to neuron and epithelium (epiblast
), adipocyte (mesoblast), hepatocyte (entoblast).
EGCs exhibit epiblast
pluripotency marks such as OCT3/4 and SOX2 and are capable of teratoma formation .
In mice, pluripotent stem cells can also be derived from the epiblast
of post-implantation-stage embryos, commonly known as epiblast
Docheva et al., "Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is required for polarizing the epiblast
, cell adhesion, and controlling actin accumulation," Genes & Development, vol.
Among the truly naive are mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), while the primed variety includes the slightly more differentiated mouse epiblast
stem cells (EpiSCs) as well as human ESCs (hESCs), which may not be true embryonic stem cells.
The human embryo, in the gastrulation stage, has the shape of a flat disc with two layers of cells (bilaminar disk) known as epiblast
and hypoblast (Figure 1) .
Itoh et al., "The homeoprotein nanog is required for maintenance of pluripotency in mouse epiblast
and ES cells," Cell, vol.
Live imaging of whole mouse embryos during gastrulation: migration analyses of epiblast
and mesodermal cells.
stem cells contribute new insight into pluripotency and gastrulation.
The blastocyst comprises three cell types: cells that will develop into the placenta and allow the embryo to attach to the womb; and cells that form the yolk sac, which provides nutrients to the developing fetus; and the epiblast
comprising the naive cells that will develop into the future body.