(2015, 2016) could recently transform beans with genetic markers (bar, nptII y uidA) producing chimeric regenerants through direct and indirect organogenesis from epicotyl
. However, the established protocol did not rendered stable genetic transformation (Collado et al., 2016).
segments by direct organogenesis from in vitro papaya seedling plants.
Press wheels perform the function of pressing the soil laterally to the seeds, causing the layer in the center of the row to be less dense, thus reducing the effort needed for epicotyl
Interchangeable effects of gibberellic acid and temperature on embryo growth, seed germination and epicotyl
emergence in Ribes multiflorum ssp.
In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the explants types and the concentrations of growth regulators able to promote the formation of regenerative calluses and adventitious shoots in segments of epicotyl
and hypocotyl of Dipteryx odorata, aiming the propagation and multiplication of the species.
After 21 days, the length of normal seedlings was assessed by the portion above (epicotyl
length - EPL) and below (root + hypocotyl axis - RHL) the cotyledon insertion; these results were expressed in cm.seedling-1.
Most of our dead propagules exhibited almost no epicotyl
or root system expansion, as observed by Scherrer (1988) during a simulated oil spill experiment.
The material (root, hypocotyl, cotyledons, epicotyl
and eophyll) were fixed in glutaraldehyde (1% in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) (Karnovsky, 1965) and later transferred to 70% ethyl alcohol following the protocol of Johansen (1940).
The objective of the present study was to determine a protocol for the in vitro propagation of Aspidosperma polyneuron using epicotyl
and hypocotyl explants obtained from in vitro germinated seeds.
Paeonia lactiflora seeds display both hypocotyl and epicotyl
dormancy and time from sowing to fully germination takes six to seven months under natural conditions.
Various explants such as leaf, stem, epicotyl
, node, internode, axillary shoot tip, petiole, hypocotyl, root, cotyledonary leaf, and embryo are employed for regeneration (Tables 2 and 3).
Their explants were the cotyledonary nodes, with the epicotyl
, hypocotyl and cotyledons removed.