meningitis in the southwestern United States.
Body lice may carry disease such as epidemic typhus
, relapsing fever, and trench fever or endocarditis.
The human body louse (Pediculus humanis humanis) can transmit Ricketsia prowasekii, a bacterium that causes epidemic typhus
. Epidemic typhus
has occurred when populations have been disrupted or concentrated by famine or floods and the attendant insanitary conditions (14 Encyclopedia Britannica, pp.
Rickettsia prowazekii, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the cause of louse-borne epidemic typhus
in humans, multiplies within the cytoplasm of its host cells.
 Raoult et al.,  in Burundi during a field study, reported epidemic typhus
in 75% of clinically suspected cases in refugee camps.
The Serbian medical corps, together with the help of foreign medical missions from Russia, Great Britain, the United States of America, France, Greece, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark and many other countries that responded to the desperate pleas of the Serbian government, which was powerless in the face of the humanitarian disaster, successfully defeated epidemic typhus
in Serbia by the end of August in 1915.
Examples of disease outbreaks observed in such situations include malaria (transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes), epidemic typhus
(transmitted by lice) and dengue fever (transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes).
military asked USDA to support the war effort by developing products to protect personnel from insect-transmitted diseases, especially plague, malaria, scrub typhus, epidemic typhus
, and dengue.
typhi, the sensitivity and specificity obtained by immunoperoxidase assay for the serodiagnosis of scrub typhus, epidemic typhus
, and MSF (Mediterranean spotted fever) is similar to those obtained by IFA17.
, a rodent zoonosis transmitted to man by dermal, mucosal, or inhalational inoculation with Rickettsia prowazekii-contaminated feces from infected body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis) has plagued armies and refugees for centuries.
So too are the genomes of the bacterial pathogens that the body louse transmits to its human hosts: Rickettsia prowazekii (which causes epidemic typhus
), Borrelia recurrentis (the agent of relapsing fever) and Bartonella quintana (which causes trench fever).