organisms, and demersal organisms including shrimp and fishes (Oh et al.
Studies in which bottom grabs were used to sample organisms in unconsolidated sediments have revealed a measurable impact from trawling on an infaunal community in the North Sea from a single pass of a beam trawl, even in an environment that had been trawled heavily for decades (Reiss et ah, 2009), but in a study in South Africa, no measurable impacts of additional trawling to the epifaunal
community in a continuously trawled area (Atkinson et ah, 2011).
Diversity and structure of epifaunal
communities on mollusk valves, Buzzards-Bay, Massachusetts.
Nutrient impacts on epifaunal
density and species composition in a subtropical seagrass bed.
Scales of life range across microbial, meiofaunal, mesofaunal, maerofaunal, and megafaunal; modes of life include planktonic, pelagic, nektic, benthic (motile and sessile), epifaunal
, semi-infaunal, and infaunal.
The lack of plugs in many specimens likewise precludes their origin as a vertically-oriented burrow or as an escape trace by an infaunal or epifaunal
animal like an anemone.
The Mississippi samples consisted of two growth forms of calcareous epifaunal
bryozoans--erect and encrusting.
Trochammina settles as an infaunal or epifaunal
deposit and plant feeder in a wide range of environments and water depth .
1999), and MacEachern and Gingras (2007), who suggested that these conditions characterize brackish-water trace fossil assemblages hy: 1) a low diversity; 2) domination by monospecific suites; 3) traces typically present in marine rather than freshwater environments; 4) a trend toward simple burrowing structures formed by opportunistic organisms; (5) sporadically distributed ichnogenera; and 6) infaunal traces predominating over epifaunal
Embeddedness Velocity/ Sediment Channel Substrate Depth Deposition Flow Status 1 19 19 18 18 15 2 15 18 15 17 16 3 18 18 19 18 15 4 18 18 19 16 18 5 19 18 18 16 18 6 19 18 17 18 15 7 16 18 19 19 17 8 16 15 17 17 15 9 18 19 16 18 17 Mean 17.
A comparison of epifaunal
communities associated with the stems of salt marsh grasses Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora.
substrate/available cover, riffle quality, embeddedness, channel alteration, sediment deposition, frequency of riffles, channel flow status, bank vegetative protection, bank stability, and riparian vegetative zone width.