Gross Lisse leaf curl Nicotiana benthamiana mosaic, rugosity, epinasty
Nicotiana clevelandii no infection/ mild chlorosis Nicotiana edwardsonii no infection Nicotiana glutinosa no infection Nicotiana megalosiphon mosaic, necrotic fleck Nicotiana rustica no infection Nicotiana tabacum no infection cv.
The toxicity of 2,4-D was evidenced by the epinasty
of the leaves, bending of the leaf over the bottom side and the stems bent toward the soil.
Symptomology can vary from chlorosis of the terminal buds, cupping or crinkling of canopy leaves, and leaf or stem epinasty
. Higher rates can even result in stem cracking, terminal death, or plant death [17,21,22].
This was due to epinasty
, which happens when the roots gets flooded.
Directional blue light irradiation triggers epidermal cell elongation of abaxial side resulting in inhibition of leaf epinasty
in geranium under red light condition.
Curling, or epinasty
, is caused by the greater growth of the adaxial portion rather than the abaxial portion of the leaf, thereby minimizing the interception of light and transpiration loss (Armstrong and Drew, 2002).
Moreover, the herbicidal effect of 2,4-D, even when applied only to the base of the cuttings, could harm the vital functions of the cuttings, because auxins can induce prejudicial metabolic and biochemical changes, such as in nucleic acids, the plasticity of the cell wall, and the action of the RNA-polymerase enzyme, and, consequently, in the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, and can also induce high cell proliferation in tissues, causing stem epinasty
and phloem interruption (OLIVEIRA JUNIOR et al., 2011).
In tomato, epinasty
which is induced by ethylene is a good indicator of salt-sensitivity , and ethylene biosynthesis is increased by salt stress .
Many authors have reported different protocols for in vitro culture of potato using different explants and different cultivars (Roest and Bokelman, 1976; Martel and de Garcia, 1992; de Garcia and Martinez, 1995; Seabrook and Douglass, 2001; Vargas et al., 2005); however, ethylene produced by tissue, callus and plantlets in closed vessels may lead to abnormal plantlet growth, hyperhydricity, abnormal branching in vitro, epinasty
, leaf and flower bud abscission, diminution of foliar area (Turhan, 2004; Mullins et al., 2006; Zobayed et al., 2001; Zobayed, 2005; Hazarika, 2006; Steinitz et al., 2010; Giridhar, 2004; Dang and Wei, 2009; Jackson et al., 1991).