liverworts, lichens and fungi growing on Costa Rican shield mantis (Mantodea: Choeradodis).
The biology and functional morphology of Pteria brevialata (Bivalvia: Pterioidea), epizoic
on gorgonians in Hong Kong.
While the study of epizoic
diatoms growing on the carapaces of marine turtles has been advanced considerably in recent years (Frick & Pfaller, 2013; Majewska, Santoro, Bolanos, Chaves, & De Stefano, 2015), such studies for freshwater turtles have remained scarce, and even more so in the Neotropical region, where epizoic
diatoms in aquatic ecosystems have only been studied by Wetzel, van de Vijuer, Cox, and Ector (2010); Wetzel, van de Vijuer, Cox, Bicudo, and Ector (2012).
Ophiothela brittle stars have invaded the Atlantic.
and Apochlorotic Tursiocola species (Bacillariophyta) from the Skin of Florida Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).
relationship between octolasmids and the commercially important crabs, such as Callinectes sapidus, Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus, has received much attention by several authors from Australia, USA, UK and Thailand (Walker, 1974, 2001; Jefferies et al., 1982, 1985, 1989a, b, 1991, 1992, 1995; Jefferies and Voris, 1983, 1996, 2004; Gannon, 1990; Shield, 1992; Gannon and Wheatly, 1992; Voris et al., 1994, 2000; Voris and Jefferies, 1997, 2001; Key et al., 1997; Mantelatto et al., 2003; Shield and Overstreet, 2003; Gaddes and Sumpton, 2004).
Until recently, the cosmopolitan epizoic
barnacle species Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758), Chelonibia manati (Gruvel, 1903), and Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818) were considered host specialists, restricted to sea turtles, manatees, and crabs (including horseshoe crabs), respectively (Dawin, 1854; Hayashi, 2013).
Bivalves are known to have a multitude of lifestyles: free-living (Morton, 1973; Lutzen & Nielsen, 2005), commensal (Goto, Hamamura, & Kato, 2007), mutualist (Mokady, Loya, & Lazar, 1998), epizoic
(Villegas et al., 2005) or parasitic (Malard, 1903).
Algae and other epizoic
organisms occasionally attach to turtle shells (Proctor 1958; Wehr and Sheath 2003), including turtles in eastern North America (Belusz and Reed 1969; Garbary and others 2007), the Midwest (Edgren and others 1953) and Southwest (Hulse 1976).
When my father was sixteen years old--about 1920--the wildlife in the Wankie and Matetsi areas was recovering from the Rinderpest epizoic
. He always maintained there was far more game at Matetsi when I was active there than when he was a youngster.
The biogenic structures retained in the models were either erect forms (e.g., F or Co) or have been reported to be epizoic
on erect sponges (e.g., G and Gp sponges; Stone et al., 2011).
barnacles removed from the skin of a humpback whale after a period of intense surface activity.