Of the seven types of mycorrhizae described (arbuscular, arbutoid, ectomycorrhiza, ectendo, ericoid
, monotropoid, and orchidaceous), both arbuscular (AM) and ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are reported to be the most abundant and widespread in forest communities (Smith & Read, 2008; Taylor & Alexander, 2005).
Part II The species with the ericoid
and pinoid leaflets.
Lesser celandine that was colonized by fungal communities consisting of parasitic fungal endophytes, ericoid
mycorrhizae, and dark septate endophytes had a higher biomass (0.63 g) than plants that were colonized by fungal communities consisting of other groups of general root endophytes (0.29 g) (t-test, df = 60.9, P<0.0001).
Major groups of mycorrhizae include ectomycorrhizae, endomycorrhizae, ericoid
mycorrhizae, and orchid mycorrhizae [6-8].
Before the experiment commencement Changbai larch seedlings were obtained from nursery soils wherein roots were likely to be inoculated considering that (arbuscular- ectoand ericoid
) mycorrhizal fungi constitute a large part of the fine-root volume of most plants up to 40% for ectomycorrhizas and
Several unrelated subshrub species also converge either by an ericoid
habit, by leaves congested at the branch apices, and by decussate phyllotaxis.
Only one species is recorded from the Sambirano Rainforest and none from the Montane Ericoid
Mechanism of arsenate resistance in the Ericoid
mycorrhizal fungus Hymenoscyphus ericae.
In addition to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which will be discussed in greater detail, ericoid
mycorrhizal fungi colonize the root cells of their host, producing an infection unit that involves a single host cell without spreading to the neighboring root cells.
Leaf [sup.15]N abundance of subarctic plants provide field evidence that ericoid
, ectomycorrhizal and non- and arbuscular mycorrhizal species access different sources of soil nitrogen.
In the Peruvian-Chilean Andes, the puna consists of a lower layer of shrub vegetation, tolar, dominated by tola (Lepidophyllum quadrangulare) and several ericoid
species of Parastrephia (Asteraceae), and an upper layer, the pajonal, occupied by open herbaceous communities with ichu (Stipa ichu, and other grasses, mainly of the genera Stipa and Calamagrostis) and the fescue paja brava (Festuca orthophylla) with patches of bofedales (see photo 146, page 241).