Then consider what victual or esculent
things there are, which grow speedily, and within the year; as parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions, radish, artichokes of Hierusalem, maize, and the like.
The remainder of the garden presented a well-selected assortment of esculent
vegetables, in a praiseworthy state of advancement.
Here, therefore, during the fishing season, the Snake Indians resort from far and near, to lay in their stock of salmon, which, with esculent
roots, forms the principal food of the inhabitants of these barren regions.
But there is not a shadow of evidence in favour of this view: to assert that we could not breed our cart and race-horses, long and short-horned cattle, and poultry of various breeds, and esculent
vegetables, for an almost infinite number of generations, would be opposed to all experience.
-- for the nobler plants are valued for the fruit they bear at last in the air and light, far from the ground, and are not treated like the humbler esculents
, which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season.
(96) William MacNeill, "How the Potato Changed the World's History," Social Research 66, 1 (1999): 67-83; Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1973); John Reader, Propitious Esculent
: The Potato in World History (London: Heinemann, 2008).
A comparison of the biology of Echinus esculent
us in different habitats.