Heller's operation was modified to a single anterior esophagomyotomy
by Groeneveldt in 1918 and further popularized by Zaaijer in 19238.
Reasons and Prevalence of Reoperations After Esophagomyotomy
Etiologies of iatrogenic diaphragmatic defects include Ivor Lewis procedure, antireflux procedures, esophagomyotomy
, partial gastrectomy, gastric banding procedures, and misguided chest tubes or thoracoabdominal incisions in which the diaphragm is taken down .
10) The surgical approach to achalasia is the Heller esophagomyotomy
and can be performed through open, laparoscopic, or thoracoscopic approaches.
There are new chapters on consultation, transplantation medicine, pain management, and asthma management, as well as new surgical chapters including thoracic aortic disease, lung transplantation, esophagomyotomy
, cervical spine surgery, reconstruction after cancer ablation, thyroid malignancies, vasectomy, and inflatable penile prosthesis.