Histopathologic features in esophagomyotomy
specimens from patients with achalasia.
Long-term results of esophagomyotomy
for achalasia of esophagus.
Dissection of the cyst had been complicated by extensive pericystic adhesions and esophagomyotomy
was required for complete excision.
Heller's operation was modified to a single anterior esophagomyotomy
by Groeneveldt in 1918 and further popularized by Zaaijer in 19238.
Commonly used techniques include esophagomyotomy
for type 1 strictures and partial resection, patch grafting, and mucosal fenestration for type 2 and 3 strictures [1, 13].
Etiologies of iatrogenic diaphragmatic defects include Ivor Lewis procedure, antireflux procedures, esophagomyotomy
, partial gastrectomy, gastric banding procedures, and misguided chest tubes or thoracoabdominal incisions in which the diaphragm is taken down .
(10) The surgical approach to achalasia is the Heller esophagomyotomy
and can be performed through open, laparoscopic, or thoracoscopic approaches.
There are new chapters on consultation, transplantation medicine, pain management, and asthma management, as well as new surgical chapters including thoracic aortic disease, lung transplantation, esophagomyotomy
, cervical spine surgery, reconstruction after cancer ablation, thyroid malignancies, vasectomy, and inflatable penile prosthesis.