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(1) Correcting hyperopia or myopia can help to compensate for esophoria and exophoria, respectively.
Before 3D TV viewing, 17 observers had exophoria, while 11 observers had esophoria, and the other 4 observers were orthophoric.
Ocular motility exam revealed comitant esotropia of 12-15 PD at distance vision and smaller esophoria of 6 PD at near vision.
All the cases were either diagnosed as esotropia without optical correction or diagnosed as esotropia, esophoria, microtropia, or eccentric fixation; they all received proper optical corrections.
As the main purpose of surgery is to obtain stable binocular vision, well-compensated orthophoria or exo or esophoria is considered as a surgical success.
In addition, throughout the study their mean values remained within the normative Morgan values for lateral deviation at distance (i.e., between 2 esophoria and 3 exophoria, Figure 4(a)) and near (i.e., between 2 esophoria and 8 exophoria, Figure 4(b)) as well as distance vertical phoria and near vertical phoria (NVP) (i.e., [less than or equal to] 0.5 diopter [D], Figure 4(c)-(d)).
On orthoptic examination, 27% patients had exophoria for near convergence, 50% had convergence insufficiency or decreased convergence amplitude, and 23% had esophoria [Table 10].
Successful outcome was defined as alignment [less than or equal to] 10 prism diopters (PD) esophoria or exophoria at the last follow-up visit.
If the visual axes are convergent, the bias is described as esophoria, and if divergent, exophoria.
Low NRA, excess/ spasm accommodative esophoria at near function causing asthenopia at near, variable near and distance vision blur Accommodative Slow accommodation LowAF, low PRA and NRA infacility response when switching from near to far focus and back, commonly presents as distance blur when looking up from reading Convergence Difficulty EXOP at near, reduced insufficiency converging the eyes PRV at near, receded for near focus NPC, low BO VF.
However, larger effects have been found in children with poor accommodative response and esophoria at near [23, 24], but still only borderline clinically meaningful.
There was no significant change in the horizontal near phoria value (t (11) = 0.49; p = 0.62), which ranged from 14 exophoria to 1 esophoria in the group.
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