Others (Clobazam, Temazepam, Midazolam, Chlordiazepoxide, Clorazepate, Estazolam
, Flurazepam, Oxazepam, Triazolam, and Quazepam)
She has a medical history of major depression and panic disorder for 20 years and was under regular antidepressant (escitalopram initially then switched to imipramine 25 mg HS) and benzodiazepine (alprazolam 0.5 mg bid, estazolam
2 mg, and seroquel 50 mg HS) treatment, and hypertension is under control with propranolol 10 mg bid treatment for 10 years.
His family found him attempting to commit suicide by ingesting a large amount of pills [including Trazodone (50 mg): 25 pills; Sodium Valproate (500 mg) (extended-release preparation): 50 pills; Estazolam
(2 mg): 50 pills; and Fludiazepam (0.25 mg): 25 pills].
(n) Others including calcium dobesilate (n =1), methazolamide (n = 8), multiple antifungals (itraconazole and voriconazole) (n = 1), multiple antidepressant (amitriptyline and estazolam
) (n = 1), and multiple antituberculosis drugs (n = 1).
Determination of hypnotic benzodiazepines (alprazolam, estazolam
([section]) Substances consistently reported to the surveillance system during study period: alprazolam, amphetamine, buprenorphine, cannabinoids, carisoprodol/ meprobamate, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, cocaine, codeine, diazepam, estazolam
, ethanol, fentanyl, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, y-hydroxybutryric acid, helium, heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, ketamine, lorazepam, meperidine, methadone, methamphetamine, midazolam, morphine, nitrous oxide, nordiazepam, oxazepam, oxycodone, oxymorphone, phencyclidine, temazepam, tramadol, triazolam, and zolpidem.
(13) Tramadol and estazolam
may cause various side-effects, with the latter having the potential to cause changes in behaviour.
The benzodiazepines prescribed during the period of study were alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam
, lorazepam, midazolam and nitrazepam.
Relatively low risk: Parkinson's disease medications such as levodopa/carbidopa (Parcopa, Sinemet) and amantadine; antihypertensive drugs such as Clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres); calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (including Cardizem and Dilacor), and verapamil (Calan); beta-blockers, such as atenolol (Tenormin), propanolol (Inderal) and timolol (Timoptic); the Alzheimer's disease drug donepezil (Aricept); hormone replacement drugs, such as estrogen (Enjuvia, Cenextin, etc.), medroxyprogesterone (Provera) and conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone (Prempro); and benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan) and estazolam
Exclusion criteria were as follows : Any ocular surgery treatment, any ≥2 weeks topical eye drops treatment other than anti-glaucoma medications, any lacrimal apparatus and ocular surface diseases, use of contact lenses, any medical treatment that influence tear production, such as dopamine, amitriptyline, estazolam
, and immunosuppressive agent, not completing the follow-up protocol.
* Benzodiazepines and other sedativehypnotics These include lorazepam (Ativan[R]), temazepam (Restoril[R]), estazolam
(ProSom[R]), zolpidem (Ambien[R], Zolpimist[R], Intermezzo[R]), eszopiclone (Lunesta[R]), and Zaleplon (Sonata[R]).
(14-29) These BLDs have different onsets of effect as evidenced by time to achieve maximum plasma concentration ([T.sub.max]), ranging from 0.5 hours (flurazepam) to 2 hours (estazolam
, quazepam, triazolam).