In 100 mL round bottom flask barbituric acid/thiobarbituric acid 8a/8b (0.005 mol, 2 equivalent) and aromatic aldehydes 1-7, (0.0025 mol, 1 equivalent) was stirred in 25 mL of absolute ethanol, and catalytic amount of sodium ethoxide
was added to the reaction mixture.
The precursor for the window layer titanium oxide (Ti[O.sub.2]) nanostructure thin film was prepared by mixing 3 ml of titanium ethoxide
with 30 ml of distilled water and ethanol mixture, and three droplets of acetic acid.
Mexican traffickers can produce APAAN using benzylcyanide, sodium ethoxide
The deprotonated ethanol would stabilize by noncovalent bonding of potassium ion (from KOH) or sodium ion (from NaOH) and would result in the formation of potassium ethoxide
or sodium ethoxide
In typical synthesis procedure, 0.1 M of zinc acetate solution was prepared by adding 5.4923 g Zn[([O.sub.2]C[H.sub.3]).sub.2] to a 250 ml volumetric flask, containing a minimum amount of ethanol (99.99%) sigma Aldrich, resulting in the formation of zinc ethoxide
, as depicted by (1).
Under these optimal conditions the Knoevenagel reaction may follow through the cyanoacetyl system present in the cyanoacetylindole (1), a methylene-activated system used as a versatile nucleophile in Knoevenagel reaction to obtain acrylonitriles derivatives [7, 66, 67], influenced by the participation of ethanol as acid (p[K.sub.a] = 15.9), that deprotonated, will produce ethoxide
ion, as strong base, and by the presence of different heteroaryl-aldehydes (2a-i) with the electron withdrawing and electron-releasing substituents.
Adam's catalyst (Pt[O.sub.2] x [H.sub.2]O) and sodium ethoxide
(NaOEt) were purchased from Acros and were used without further purification.
The addition followed the order: TEOS, triethyl phosphite, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, sodium nitrate, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, ammonium fluoride, potassium nitrate, lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate, and tantalum ethoxide
. The sol was left at room temperature for 10 days and then placed in an oven at 70[degrees]C for 72 h to obtain a gel.
The NaNb[O.sub.3] sols were synthesized by varying the concentration of sodium as follows: The starting materials were Niobium ethoxide
(Nb-[(O[C.sub.2][H.sub.5]).sub.5]) (NbE) (Sigma Aldrich), Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (Merck, India), Absolute alcohol (EtOH) (Merck, India), Acetyl acetone (ACA) (Merck, India) and Polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG) (Alfa aesar) used as received.
Transparent PMMA nanocomposites containing silica and titania with enhanced thermal stability were also prepared starting from methyl methacrylate and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate as organic monomers and tetraethoxysilane and titanium ethoxide
as inorganic oxides precursors .