Patients were treated with suppressive therapy that consisted of an oral contraceptive (OC) (35 [micro]g ethinyl estradiol plus 1 mg ethynodiol diacetate
), an antiandrogen (spironolactone 200 mg/day), or a combination of these drugs.
Mylan NV (NASDAQ, TASE: MYL), a global pharmaceutical company, announced yesterday that it has launched its Ethynodiol Diacetate
and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets USP, 1 mg / 0.05 mg in the United States.
TABLE 3 A look at 4 generations of progestins (6) First generation Ethynodiol diacetate
Norethindrone Second generation Levonorgestrel Norgestrel Third generation Desogestrel Etonogestrel * Gestodene ([dagger]) Norgestimate Norelgestromin ([double dagger]) Fourth generation Dienogest Drospirenone * Metabolite of desogestrel, contained in the vaginal ring and subdermal implant, ([dagger]) Currently not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, but under review as a new patch.
The investigators found significant associations between breast cancer and recent use of OCs involving high-dose estrogen (OR, 2.7; 95% Cl, 1.1 6.2), ethynodiol diacetate
(OR, 2.6; 95% Cl, 1.4-4.7), or triphasic dosing with an average of 0.75 mg of norethindrone (OR, 3.1; 95% Cl, 1.95.1).
Existing progestogen compounds can be classified as first- (e.g., norethisterone, norethindrone, ethynodiol diacetate
, and lynestrenol), second- (levonorgestrel and norgestrel), and third-generation (desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate).
Combined OCPs administered to the patients included the following: desogestrel 0.15 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, desogestrel 0.15 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.02 mg, desogestrel 0.15 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, ethynodiol diacetate
1 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, norgestimate 0.25 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 1 mg/ethinyl estradiol 0.05 mg.
The traditional POPs contain levonorgestrel, norethisterone or ethynodiol diacetate
and act mainly by cervical mucus thickening and endometrial atrophy.
However, the present study is concurrent with the studies performed on synthetic steroids such as cyproterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate
, chlormadinone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, norgestrel and megestrol acetate that induced CAs and SCEs with or without metabolic activation system [1,10,21,22,23,25,26].