results in intellectual capital, a transitory form of human capital, embodied in particular scientists whose services must be employed in order to practice the discovery.
That increase, which operates notwithstanding the excludability
of the COD income, flows out to the partners on the last day of the partnership's tax year under Sec.
Home ownership already enjoys the tax benefits of non-taxability of imputed income from the use of the home and excludability
from income of all or most of the gain on the sale of the home (for most taxpayers); (105) these would continue (or even be enhanced) under a yield exemption tax system or current legislative iterations of the other consumption tax methods.
The legal protection of DRMs, a private means of enforcing content excludability
, participates in the "privatization" of copyright protection.
However, the new techniques used in their creation have exhibited both high natural excludability
and immense commercial value.
of age discrimination awards reached the U.
Here we adopt the framework of this literature and build on it by analyzing the size and uniqueness of the stable cartel when the fringe is Cournot; endogeneity of Cournot versus Bertrand behavior within the fringe, given the stable cartel; possible endogeneity of the Stackelberg sequence of play between the cartel and the fringe; and effects of excludability
from the cartel.
14) The key concepts in the analysis of ideas are the ones developed for the analysis of public goods: rivalry and excludability
Intellectual property rights usually cannot provide innovators with full excludability
Economists have focused heavily on three other dimensions of modern infrastructures, namely, their low levels of excludability
and of rivalry and their high level of externalities (de FONTENAY, HOGENDORN & LIEBENAU 2005).
In a 1995 memorandum to all INS District Directors and Field Staff, Associate Commissioner Aleinikoff stated that "the public charge provisions do not apply to refugees," and that "[r]efugees and individuals granted asylum who are applying for adjustment of status under section 209 of the Act are not subject to the public charge ground of excludability
Render a legal opinion (the "Bond Opinion") regarding the validity and binding effect of the Bonds, the source of payment and security for the Bonds, and the excludability
of interest on the Bond from gross income for federal and Commonwealth of Virginia income tax purposes B.