They were also 28% more forgetful when recalling past memories or previous facts, known as retrospective memory, and demonstrated a 32% difference in their mental executive function
compared to non-users.
A compromised executive function
is likely to lead to confusion and poor planning.
comprises regulatory and control mechanisms that are essential for performing goal-oriented and situation-related actions (Lezak, Howieson, & Loring, 2004; Miyake et al., 2000).
Boys with elevated blood lead levels tested poorly on the executive function
test--which tests for indicators such as memory and attention --while the effect of lead on girls was much less evident.
Our synthesis of the literature indicates that executive function
development is critical for pre-elementary students, financial socialization is key for elementary and middle school children, and financial skill building is vital for adolescents and young adults.
Together, these impacts to executive function
and stress hormones create a snowball effect, adding to social and emotional challenges that can continue through childhood.
"The effect of aerobic exercise on executive function
was more pronounced as age increased, suggesting that it may mitigate age-related declines," wrote Yaakov Stern, PhD, chief of cognitive neuroscience in the department of neurology at Columbia University, New York, and his research colleagues.
People with AFib appeared to lose more ability in two of the three cognitive tests: the DSST, a test of executive function
and processing speed, and the WFT, a test of executive function
In order to fully evaluate adolescents' executive function
, this study has used both measures.
Elsayed Elkhamisi, presented a scientific research on the deficiency levels of executive functions
and metacognitive processes in autistic children.