Because Leonardo's self-portraits have the eyes straight and the other portraits have the eyes diverged, this suggests that he had a version of exotropia
that is intermittent and would straighten his eyes when focusing on his mirror image for a portrait.
Physical examination was normal except for right eye exotropia
and accompanying reduction in vision.
The left eye was hyperemic and had alternating exotropia
Los factores de mayor riesgo son: los trastornos de refraccion, cataratas congenitas y el estrabismo manifiesto, sobre todo endotropia (ET), mientras que la exotropia
(XT) no confiere un riesgo significativo para desarrollar ambliopia (9).
Every patient was categorized into one of the six groups: esotropia, exotropia
, intermittent type, paralytic strabismus, Brown syndrome and Duane Refraction Syndrome (DRS).
This negative number means the eye would tend to look outwards (exotropia
) and Professor Tyler argues that da Vanci's strabismus may have been non-existent when focusing intently on an object, but would come in when he relaxed into painting.
Pre- and postoperative characteristics of the patients Patient 1 Patient 2 Patient 3 Age (years)/Gender 28/M 53/M 58/F Visual acuity 20/20 20/20 20/20 Diplopia T, V T, V, H T, V Involvement Bilateral Bilateral Unilateral Strabismus pattern V-pattern + ET V-pattern + ET Right HT Head position Chin down Chin down Left head tilt Extorsion 20[degrees] 20[degrees] 10[degrees] Treatment Adjustable HI Modified HI Modified HI + SR recession Postop extorsion 0 2[degrees] 0 Complications None IO limitation None M: Male, F: Female, T: Torsional, V: Vertical, H: Horizontal, XT: Exotropia
, ET: Esotropia, HT: Hypertropia, HI: Harada-Ito, SR: Superior rectus, IO: Inferior oblique, Postop: Postoperative
* Possible visual impairment: Includes strabismus (esotropia or exotropia
), nystagmus, failure to fix and follow at age <1 year; diagnosis of visual impairment at age [greater than or equal to] 1 year.
At age 5, she was assessed by an ophthalmologist and diagnosed with bilateral chorioretinal coloboma, left iris coloboma, left cataract, left sensory exotropia
, and left microphthalmos.
Cover-test at near showed an intermittent exotropia
that is shown in Figure 1; horizontal nystagmus was manifest only at extreme positions of gaze, likely representing end-gaze physiologic saccades .
In such a case, we could observe the alternative exotropia
when the patient holds fixation with a single eye.
(XT) or divergent squint usually affects about 1% of the general population and it occurs more commonly in the Middle East, subequatorial Africa, and the Orient than in the United States .