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Because Leonardo's self-portraits have the eyes straight and the other portraits have the eyes diverged, this suggests that he had a version of exotropia that is intermittent and would straighten his eyes when focusing on his mirror image for a portrait.
Physical examination was normal except for right eye exotropia and accompanying reduction in vision.
The left eye was hyperemic and had alternating exotropia with proptosis.
Los factores de mayor riesgo son: los trastornos de refraccion, cataratas congenitas y el estrabismo manifiesto, sobre todo endotropia (ET), mientras que la exotropia (XT) no confiere un riesgo significativo para desarrollar ambliopia (9).
Every patient was categorized into one of the six groups: esotropia, exotropia, intermittent type, paralytic strabismus, Brown syndrome and Duane Refraction Syndrome (DRS).
This negative number means the eye would tend to look outwards (exotropia) and Professor Tyler argues that da Vanci's strabismus may have been non-existent when focusing intently on an object, but would come in when he relaxed into painting.
Pre- and postoperative characteristics of the patients Patient 1 Patient 2 Patient 3 Age (years)/Gender 28/M 53/M 58/F Visual acuity 20/20 20/20 20/20 Diplopia T, V T, V, H T, V Involvement Bilateral Bilateral Unilateral Strabismus pattern V-pattern + ET V-pattern + ET Right HT Head position Chin down Chin down Left head tilt Extorsion 20[degrees] 20[degrees] 10[degrees] Treatment Adjustable HI Modified HI Modified HI + SR recession Postop extorsion 0 2[degrees] 0 Complications None IO limitation None M: Male, F: Female, T: Torsional, V: Vertical, H: Horizontal, XT: Exotropia, ET: Esotropia, HT: Hypertropia, HI: Harada-Ito, SR: Superior rectus, IO: Inferior oblique, Postop: Postoperative
* Possible visual impairment: Includes strabismus (esotropia or exotropia), nystagmus, failure to fix and follow at age <1 year; diagnosis of visual impairment at age [greater than or equal to] 1 year.
At age 5, she was assessed by an ophthalmologist and diagnosed with bilateral chorioretinal coloboma, left iris coloboma, left cataract, left sensory exotropia, and left microphthalmos.
Cover-test at near showed an intermittent exotropia that is shown in Figure 1; horizontal nystagmus was manifest only at extreme positions of gaze, likely representing end-gaze physiologic saccades [11].
In such a case, we could observe the alternative exotropia when the patient holds fixation with a single eye.
Exotropia (XT) or divergent squint usually affects about 1% of the general population and it occurs more commonly in the Middle East, subequatorial Africa, and the Orient than in the United States [1].