The variable amplitude and the exponential decay
of these events indicate that they are not due to the opening of individual ion channels, which would instead display discrete stepwise increases and decreases in current (Hamill et al., 1981).
Square wave electroporation systems such as the BTX ECM 830 are ideal for transfecting mammalian cells and tissues, whereas exponential decay
wave systems such as the BTX ECM 630 are ideal for transforming bacteria, yeast and other microorganisms.
The disappearance of valerate by passage with the rumen fluid was assumed equivalent to the ruminal fluid passage rate, determined by the exponential decay
of Cr concentration over time.
As such, materials have unique responses to water vapor, although all exhibit similar general behavior which shows an exponential decay
as dehumidification proceeds and the desiccant becomes saturated (Fatouh et al.
The module offers global decay analysis, tail and iterative reconvolution fitting with non-linear error minimisation, and the ability to use various exponential decay
(up to the fifth order) or rate constant distribution models.
Instead of using a logarithmic scale for exponential decay
of carbon-14, the authors used a graph with the scale of percent modern carbon: it shows visually the decrease of carbon-14 with the passage of time, due to radioactive decay (see fig.
Its exponential decay
waveform would mitigate the risk of unintended deaths that have sometimes occurred with other "nonlethal" weapons, he said.
The Wi-Fi network, whose degree distribution follows an exponential decay
, is a scale-free network when R is set to 15m .
where [m.sub.t] and [v.sub.t] initialized as zero are estimates of the first moment and the second moment and [[beta].sub.1] and [[beta].sub.2] are exponential decay
rates for the moment estimates.
(ii) [S.sub.2] is backward exponential decay
, that is, for each t [member of] R and B [member of] B, there exist two positive constants [c.sub.1] = [c.sub.1](t, B) and [c.sub.2] = [c.sub.2](t, B) such that, for some [[tau].sub.0] [greater than or equal to] 0,
We consider two applications to illustrate numerically an exponential decay
for the case p(x, y) = 2 and a polynomial decay for an exponent function p(x) satisfying conditions (1)-(3).