The Court rejected equal protection and other constitutional claims against the zoning measure and relied on a mix of environmental and social externality
rationales." (110) It reasoned that "a quiet place where yards are wide, people few, and motor vehicles restricted are legitimate guidelines in a land use project addressed to family needs." (111) The Court also held that "the police power is not confined to elimination of filth, stench, and unhealthy places.
in the taxi market is an important issue which is worth noting and being researched.
Congestion costs in urban areas are significant and clearly represent a negative externality
. Nonetheless, economists also recognize the production advantages of urban density in the form of positive agglomeration externalities.
, in turn, resides in the failure of financial intermediaries to internalise this fire sale damage, which affects the broader economy and not just the institutions engaging in such funding patterns.
Government actually must make sure coal companies internalize externality
costs, because these are implicit subsidies our people cannot afford and should not pay for," he said.
Each type of externality
raises distinct normative concerns and accounts for specific structural features of international law.
This article examines the accident externality
from driving in terms of loss probability and severity by using a unique individual-level data set with more than 3 million observations from Taiwan.
For example, if a person smokes and thereby creates a negative externality
of more secondhand smoke, then her choice not to smoke creates a positive externality
of less secondhand smoke.
The concept of externality
has been under academic scrutiny for around a hundred years.
We then use difference-in-differences regressions to estimate the externality
associated with a major big-box closing on outcomes for neighborhoods of differing sizes around the store.
Nalebuff (1997: 35-37), for example, has argued that for environmental problems "as the scope of the externality
affects more and more people, it becomes increasingly difficult to assign property rights." Moreover, "even when property rights have been assigned, exclusion is difficult if not impossible." In this article, we argue that the New York City Watershed Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) proves the usefulness of the Coasean framework--even when there are a large number of affected parties from nonpoint source pollution.
These expenses fall under the so-called negative externality
, also known as external cost or external diseconomy, because they negatively affect the public since the government had to funnel funding for them.