extinction


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Related to extinction: Mass extinction, Extinction of Species

ex·tinc·tion

 (ĭk-stĭngk′shən)
n.
1.
a. The act of extinguishing: The extinction of the fire took several hours.
b. The condition of being extinguished: mourned the extinction of her dreams.
2. The fact of being extinct or the process of becoming extinct: the extinction of the passenger pigeon; languages that are in danger of extinction.
3. Psychology A reduction or a loss in the strength or rate of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement is withheld.
4. Physiology A gradual decrease in the excitability of a nerve to a previously adequate stimulus, usually resulting in total loss of excitability.
5. Astronomy The dimming of celestial objects, usually measured in magnitudes, due to scattering and absorption of their light as it passes through interstellar dust clouds and the earth's atmosphere.

extinction

(ɪkˈstɪŋkʃən) or

extincture

n
1. the act of making extinct or the state of being extinct
2. the act of extinguishing or the state of being extinguished
3. complete destruction; annihilation
4. (General Physics) physics reduction of the intensity of radiation as a result of absorption or scattering by matter
5. (Astronomy) astronomy the dimming of light from a celestial body as it passes through an absorbing or scattering medium, such as the earth's atmosphere or interstellar dust
6. (Psychology) psychol a process in which the frequency or intensity of a learned response is decreased as a result of reinforcement being withdrawn. Compare habituation

ex•tinc•tion

(ɪkˈstɪŋk ʃən)

n.
1. the act of extinguishing.
2. the state of being extinguished or extinct.
3. the act or process of becoming extinct: the extinction of a species.
4. the reduction or loss of a conditioned response as a result of the absence or withdrawal of reinforcement.
5. the darkness that results from rotation of a thin section to an angle (extinc′tion an`gle) at which plane-polarized light is absorbed by the polarizer.
[1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.extinction - no longer active; extinguished; "the extinction of the volcano"
inaction, inactiveness, inactivity - the state of being inactive
2.extinction - no longer in existenceextinction - no longer in existence; "the extinction of a species"
death - the absence of life or state of being dead; "he seemed more content in death than he had ever been in life"
3.extinction - the reduction of the intensity of radiation as a consequence of absorption and radiation
absorption - (physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium; "the absorption of photons by atoms or molecules"
natural action, natural process, action, activity - a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings); "the action of natural forces"; "volcanic activity"
scattering - the physical process in which particles are deflected haphazardly as a result of collisions
4.extinction - complete annihilationextinction - complete annihilation; "they think a meteor cause the extinction of the dinosaurs"
annihilation, disintegration - total destruction; "bomb tests resulted in the annihilation of the atoll"
5.extinction - a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
conditioning - a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
6.extinction - the act of extinguishingextinction - the act of extinguishing; causing to stop burning; "the extinction of the lights"
ending, termination, conclusion - the act of ending something; "the termination of the agreement"

extinction

noun dying out, death, destruction, abolition, oblivion, extermination, annihilation, eradication, obliteration, excision, extirpation Many species have been hunted to the point of extinction.

extinction

noun
2. The act or fact of dying:
Slang: curtain (used in plural).
Translations
إخْمادإنْقِراض
slukninguddøenudryddelse
sukupuutto
kialváskihalás
aldauîi, útrÿmingslokknun
vyhasnutie
izumrtje
sön metükenmeyok olma

extinction

[ɪksˈtɪŋkʃən] Nextinción f

extinction

[ɪkˈstɪŋkʃən] nextinction f
to face extinction → être menacé(e) d'extinction

extinction

n (of race, family, animal, species, tribe)Aussterben nt; (= annihilation)Ausrottung f; threatened with or faced with or in danger of extinctionvom Aussterben bedroht; this animal was hunted to extinctiondiese Tierart wurde durch Jagen ausgerottet

extinction

[ɪksˈtɪŋkʃn] n (of fire) → estinzione f, spegnimento; (of race) → estinzione f

extinct

(ikˈstiŋkt) adjective
1. (of a type of animal etc) no longer in existence. Mammoths became extinct in prehistoric times.
2. (of a volcano) no longer active. That volcano was thought to be extinct until it suddenly erupted ten years ago.
extinction (ikˈstiŋkʃən) noun
1. making or becoming extinct. the extinction of the species.
2. the act of putting out or extinguishing (fire, hope etc).

ex·tinc·tion

n. extinción; supresión; cesación.
References in classic literature ?
In the cases where we can trace the extinction of a species through man, either wholly or in one limited district, we know that it becomes rarer and rarer, and is then lost: it would be difficult to point out any just distinction [13] between a species destroyed by man or by the increase of its natural enemies.
Comparing the humped herds of whales with the humped herds of buffalo, which, not forty years ago, overspread by tens of thousands the prairies of Illinois and Missouri, and shook their iron manes and scowled with their thunder-clotted brows upon the sites of populous river-capitals, where now the polite broker sells you land at a dollar an inch; in such a comparison an irresistible argument would seem furnished, to show that the hunted whale cannot now escape speedy extinction.
Such an event ought to be neither presumed nor desired; because an extinction of parties necessarily implies either a universal alarm for the public safety, or an absolute extinction of liberty.
Elton in particular; but it seemed to her reasonable that at Harriet's age, and with the entire extinction of all hope, such a progress might be made towards a state of composure by the time of Mr.
It's only decent to warn you that you will be bored to extinction.
At last, some time before I stopped, the sun, red and very large, halted motionless upon the horizon, a vast dome glowing with a dull heat, and now and then suffering a momentary extinction.
There appears to be a tendency to extinction among all the savage nations; and this tendency would seem to have been in operation among the aboriginals of this country long before the advent of the white men, if we may judge from the traces and traditions of ancient populousness in regions which were silent and deserted at the time of the discovery; and from the mysterious and perplexing vestiges of unknown races, predecessors of those found in actual possession, and who must long since have become gradually extinguished or been destroyed.
It is interesting in this manner to perceive, so largely developed, the germs of extinction in the so-called powerful Anglo-Saxon family.
But when it is a beloved and intimate human being that is dying, besides this horror at the extinction of life there is a severance, a spiritual wound, which like a physical wound is sometimes fatal and sometimes heals, but always aches and shrinks at any external irritating touch.
And when the latter was threatened with extinction, Daylight developed one of the shaded springs into his water-cress garden and declared war upon any invading cattail.
This fundamental subject of Natural Selection will be treated at some length in the fourth chapter; and we shall then see how Natural Selection almost inevitably causes much Extinction of the less improved forms of life and induces what I have called Divergence of Character.
It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilisation into their midst, i.