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Located or occurring outside the cranium.


(Medicine) on the exterior of the skull, outside the skull
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Dissection of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries is a common cause of stroke in young patients.
(14) In this case, the conventional angiography revealed narrowing of the extracranial part of the ICA, thus confirming the diagnosis of DA.
This observational study included 809 patients who underwent surgery due to extracranial carotid artery stenosis at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Clinical Center of Vojvodina in Novi Sad during a 5-year period (April 2013 - March 2018).
However, in that study, published in 2017 in the Lancet, the combination of a BRAF inhibitor and MEK inhibitor had rates of intracranial response and progression-free survival that were "substantially shorter" than the rates of extracranial response and progression-free survival.
However, most patients with BM die from systemic disease other than intracranial failure, especially in those already with extracranial lesions at the time of BM.
(11) focusing on endovascular treatment of extracranial VA stenosis, the rate of strokes was 1.1% and that of TIAs was 0.8%.
With these findings, the patient was diagnosed with extracranial meningioma.
Cervical MRI angiography (MRA) revealed an aspect coherent with dissection in the right extracranial vertebral artery (Figure 2).
Primary extracranial meningioma of the temporal bone.
[3] Studies regarding combined intracranial and extracranial steno-occlusive disease is comparitively less.
Extracranial metastasis is rare and they are sporadically reported in form of case reports and constitute about 0.1% of cases [1].
Complications of CSOM are classified into intracranial and extracranial complications.

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