At least one species of nudibranch incorporates a defensive allomone into its benthic spawn mass (12), although the location within eggs or extraembryonic
investments is unknown.
Formation of the placenta and extraembryonic
tissues are an important source of stem cells and natural scaffolds.
Cloning and characterization of HLC-32, a 32-kDa protein compouent of the sea urchin extraembryonic
matrix, the hyaline layer.
This was revealed through reports which showed that hESCs, grown in serum-free media supplemented with FGF2, were induced by BMP4 to differentiate into a different extraembryonic
lineage, the trophoblast , or spontaneously differentiate into extraembryonic
endoderm-like cells due to BMP2 .
Grosveld, "The transcription factor GATA6 is essential for early extraembryonic
development," Development, vol.
membranes, such as the fish chorion, provide a protective barrier between the embryo and the environment.
Each plate contains 42 assays related to the transcription factors associated with stem cell pluripotency, self-renewal, cell proliferation, and extraembryonic
, endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal lineage differentiation.
The structure of the extraembryonic
matrices around the embryos and larvae of Patiriella exigua (Asteroidea) and their role in benthic development, a comparison with the planktonic larvae of P.
Teratocarcinomas contain early embryo-like cells called embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) that share three distinct features: (1) they are malignant; (2) they can differentiate into any of the three germ layers or extraembryonic
tissue; and (3) they can develop normally when injected into the blastocyst [21, 22].
In human ESCs, OCT4 maintains an embryonic stem cell state and represses extraembryonic
differentiation, while SOX2 is required to suppress the differentiation towards the mesendodermal .
Totipotent cells can give rise to the whole organism; pluripotent cells (iPSC, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells) can give rise to every cell type of an organism except its extraembryonic
tissues, such as the placenta.