Previous studies, however, have focused on potential mechanisms for induced responses, such as increased attractiveness or additional production of extrafloral
nectar; previous studies have not focused on induction of defending ants patrolling near damaged sites (but see Fiala and Maschwitz 1990).
Formicine ants are mostly generalists, but they are strongly attracted to carbohydrates such as those in extrafloral
nectaries (Fowler et al.
These characteristics, frequently associated with the presence of extrafloral
nectaries that favor the development of yeasts and bacteria (Ruivo et al., 2006), and to a long flowering period, allow for the development of plasmodia and sporocarps in inflorescences that are still attached to the living plant (Schnittler and Stephenson, 2002).
The association between ants and extrafloral
nectaries may be responsible for the reduction of damage by chewing insects on the reproductive parts of C.
nectar, honeydew, and sucrose effect on searching behavior and efficiency of Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in cotton.
As a second example, extrafloral
nectaries of plants attract ants that protect them from insect herbivores (Janzen 1966, reviewed by Bentley 1977).
Leaf chemical composition, such as lignin, cellulose, and fiber contents, and the presence of tannins and extrafloral
nectaries, may influence the occurrence and distribution of phytophagous insect (Peeters 2002).
Some plant species have adaptations to promote and facilitate interaction with ants: food bodies, domatia and extrafloral
nectaries (hereafter EFNs; Webber et al., 2007).
apiculatum tambien se alimenta de pupas de insectos, crustaceos, anelidos, moluscos e incluso vertebrados muertos, excrementos de animales y el nectar extrafloral
de Opuntia sp.
This species is a generalist, feeding on extrafloral
nectar as well as many resources on the ground.
(1990) applied one of these techniques (Water's Pico[center dot]Tag) to extrafloral
Laboratory evaluations of the foraging success of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on flowers and extrafloral
nectaries: potential use of nectar plants for conservation biological control of Asian citrus psyllid.