Four species within the family Unionidae
were selected from two freshwater systems: Anodonta cygnea from a shallow lagoon (Barrinha - Mira), and Anodonta anatina, Potomida littoralis, and Unio delphinus from a river (Tamega river).
As far back as the early 1900's, Arnold Ortmann (1919) characterized anthropogenic impacts to macroinvertebrate communities, predicting that mussels in the family Unionidae
would be the first lost in damaged freshwater systems and the last to recover.
North America's freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae
are extremely diverse, with approximately 300 species found throughout its waters (Williams et al., 1993; Haag, 2012).
Freshwater bivalves of North America (family Unionidae
) comprise the most imperiled taxa in the world, with recent estimates of extinctions ranging from 30 to 35 species and with 60% to 65% of the remaining species considered endangered, threatened or vulnerable (Haag and Williams, 2013; Ricciardi et al., 2014).
Remaining taxa were described or moved to the genus Unio and assumed to belong in the family Unionidae
. Good (1) suggested the small or "dwarfed" size of basal southwestern unionoids was due to "environmental conditions not optimum for this group." Small shell size is common in modern and fossil unionoids and not here considered dwarfed.
littoralis belongs to the family Unionidae
, order Unionoida.
This manuscript summarizes the findings of a survey for freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae
(hereafter, simply referred to as ''mussels") in selected streams of the Sabine National Forest (SNF) adjacent to Toledo Bend Reservoir in East Texas (Figure 1).
Although this designation seems clear, the number of characters is insufficient for its ascription at the family level, but it could be assigned to the family Unionidae
as Pleurobema, since our specimens resemble the members this genus more than those of any other known genus, as we discuss below.
Not only are they a food source to many other animals (Page, 1983), but they also are hosts to many freshwater mussels of the Family Unionidae
The distribution and abundance of freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae
(Pelecypoda) of the Wabash, White, and East Fork of the White rivers of Indiana.
However, the life cycles of species in the family Unionidae
are atypical for bivalves.
Distributional survey and habitat utilization of freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae
) in the lower Brazos and Sabine River basins.