In the autumn of 1911, the Russian diplomacy had even thought about creating a Balkan federacy
, part of which would have been Romania and the Ottoman Empire, asking the latter to revise the status of the Straits, in order to allow the passage of the Russian war vessels.
In Lebanon, on a smaller and less dramatic scale, it has been revealed that March 14 was nothing but a federacy
of sects that, in exceptional circumstances, took upon itself a nationwide rallying mission.
The various models of federalism include decentralized union, federation, confederation, federacy
, associated statehood, condominium and league.
The PJAK, an Iranian Kurdish party that broke away from the PKK, or Partiya Karekeren Kurdistan in Kurdish, in 2004 after the imprisonment of PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan, started its armed struggle against the regime in Iran with the aim of building a federacy
for Iran's Kurdistan.
Chapters address the challenge to the proposed model posed by independence insurgencies within India, the comparative treatment of Tamil minorities within India and its southern neighbor Sri Lanka, the unitary state of the Ukraine and its treatment of Russian minorities, federacy
arrangements in the otherwise unitary nation-states of Finland and Denmark with regards to the Aland Islands in the first case and Greenland and the Faroe Islands in the latter, and the US model of federalism (which they regard as the worst-case scenario for promoting democracy in robust multinational settings).
McGarry and O'Leary (2007) have recognized the limits of corporate consociationalism in Iraq, and have proposed revising Liphart's original power sharing formula to allow for loose consociationalism within the framework of a 'federacy
' in a 'pluralist federation' (McGarry & O'Leary, 2007; O'Leary, 2005).
(152.) Brendan O'Leary, The Belfast Agreement and the British-Irish Agreement: Consociation, Confederal Institutions, a Federacy
, and a Peace Process, in THE ARCHITECTURE OF DEMOCRACY, supra note 14, at 293, 294.
Since the book provides debates over the future of Kurdistan within a renewed Iraq, the first section focused on federation, federacy
and power sharing.
(3) Brendan O'Leary, "Multi-national Federalism, Federacy
, Power-Sharing, and the Kurds of Iraq" (keynote address, "Multi-Nationalism, Power-Sharing and the Kurds in a New Iraq," Cafritz Foundation Conference Center, George Washington University, 12 September 2003).
might be an imaginative solution to this problem.
It is plainly impossible to consider the Constitution which professes to govern this Union, this Federacy
of States, as anything other titan a treaty.
As Brendan O'Leary noted, the Agreement established a federacy
between the Northern Ireland Assembly and Westminster, and suspension could only occur if the devolved Assembly agreed to it.