However, at times the structures of the different verse forms lead to moments of overly-baroque hyperbaton, and there are instances where reliance on feminine rhyme
produces effects that tend towards the comical at moments of high lyricism.
The practice of such masters of feminine rhyme
as Lord Byron and W.H.
The poem's repeated use of feminine rhyme
is also a formal reenactment of the poem's central interest in collaboration.
And it is also not possible in Italian, where the final vowel in a feminine rhyme
does not experience a reduction, or in French and German, where the reduced vowel appears as a uniform -[??] [schwa].
The interchange between the masculine and feminine rhymes
is a technique that owes a debt to its Russian predecessor, the Pushkin stanza of Eugene Onegin, which interlocked couplets of masculine and feminine rhyme
By the beginning of the twentieth century, it had become accepted as a fact, by Parisian poets and by prosodists, that the 'e muet' of the feminine rhyme
was not pronounced, and had not been pronounced for centuries.
(29) Katenin also argued against Zhukovskii's conception of the octave, in which the latter argued that for the sake of facility every stanza should begin with a feminine rhyme
. Katenin claimed that such practice would bring about a collision between the two lines with feminine endings occurring at the end and beginning of every stanza.
Immediately apparent is that Shapiro cannot render the regular interlacing of masculine and feminine rhyme
, which contributes much to the poem's music.
I have chosen it because I did decide to use a 5-syllable line and to vary the English rhythm in the final couplet of each verse except the last in an attempt to match the slightly disconcerting, just 'off-balance' music of the French 7-syllable line - also to test the effect of the feminine rhyme
. The six lines of the English version appear to reveal an unwarranted expansion of the French text, yet, in mathematical self-defence, I must point out that Hugo's 4 lines of 7 syllables add up to 28 whereas 6 lines of 5 add up to only two syllables more - though, of course, there are many counted mute 'e's' in the French.
The term feminine rhyme
is also sometimes applied to triple rhymes, or rhymes involving three syllables (such as exciting and inviting).
The poem's trimeter quatrains have the rhyme scheme a b a b, but the "a" rhymes fall on unstressed syllables (feminine rhyme
), giving a soft and whispering effect.
Rhyme is classified according to the number of syllables contained in the rhyme as follows: masculine rhyme, in which the final syllables are accented and after differing initial consonants the sounds are identical (lark, stark; support, resort); feminine rhyme
, in which accented, rhyming syllables are followed by identical, unaccented syllables (revival, arrival; flutter, butter); and triple rhyme, a kind of feminine rhyme
in which accented, rhyming syllables are followed by two identical syllables (machinery, scenery; tenderly, slenderly).