Whereas Bayly simply writes that "our People found a great many baskets of human flesh quite hot from the fire", in Lay's version there came from the baskets "the aroma of freshly cooked food--chunks of earth baked meat and fern root
." Only for Lay do the dismembered and burnt body parts of slain enemies, a common practice, become cooked food.
We ordered the fern root
noodles ($11.95) simply because we'd never seen them before.
He would have discovered that some of the "Chumash" baskets collected by Malaspina were from the interior and included black bracken fern root
instead of black dyed Juncus stems.
On the contrary our results showed a high level of fern roots
colonization, supporting the previous hypothesis that the amount of available nutrients in the substrate regulates this process (Janos 1993, 2007, Brundrett 2002), leading to the notion that symbiosis may be necessary when P.
non-myrmecophilous) ferns by bringing in substances (or producing wastes) that provided extra nitrogen to the fern roots
. This was demonstrated in Antrophyum lanceolatum (=Polytaenium lanceolatum (L.) Benedict) in Costa Rica, with Phedioleflavens ants, making their study directly relevant to our observations in Peru.
This method allowed fronds to lie horizontally 5-10 cm above the ground, creating a shade-free area above the fronds while leaving fern roots
and rhizomes intact.
The apical cell of fern roots
and shoots: An appraisal of its functional role in development.
For tropical orchids, charcoal, broken clay, chunks of coconut husk, chopped tree fern roots
and a thin top dressing of sphagnum moss is ideal for orchids.