Two barriers block maternal cholesterol from being transported into the fetal circulation
in the placenta: one is villous endothelial cells and the other is villous syncytiotrophoblasts, in which ABCA1 has been described [19, 21].
Along with the foramen ovale and the ductus arteriosus, the ductus venosus serves as a major vascular shunt in fetal circulation
during intrauterine development.
Abnormal fetal circulation
is considered a major factor in fetal growth restriction, both as a cause and an indicator.
Non-invasive measurement of human fetal circulation
using ultrasound: A new method.
Subsequent work using ivf and embryo replacement, established that fetal DNA could be detected in the maternal circulation as early as day 18 post-conception and concluded that the fetal DNA detected resulted from the trophoblast as the fetal circulation
proper is not established until around day 28 post conception (60).
Changes observed in Doppler studies of the fetal circulation
in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or the delivery of a small-for-gestational-age baby.
The results of this preliminary study on intrafetal pressure measurements will be useful for performing fetal and neonatal surgeries in the future, such as judgment of adaptation of fetal thoracoamniotic shunt and neonatal thoracic drainage depending on fetal intrathoracic pressure, and for removal of fluid for improving fetal circulation
and facilitating neonatal resuscitation depending on intra-amniotic, fetal intrathoracic, and intraperitoneal pressure.
Nicolaides, "Doppler investigation of the fetal circulation
," Journal of Perinatal Medicine, vol.
The embryology section considers such topics as head and neck, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, and placenta and fetal circulation
. ([umlaut] Ringgold, Inc., Portland, OR)
First of all, it ensures the exchange of metabolic and gaseous products between mother and fetus, acting as a barrier between maternal and fetal circulation
. Furthermore, this is where the synthesis of substances, such as cholesterol, fatty acids, and glycogen are produced, in addition to an immune function, permitting the transmission of antibodies from mother to fetus.
The fetal circulation
is designed as two parallel blood streams with differing nutritional content.
It is known that excess syncytial knot formation occurs in generalized from whenever the fetal circulation
through the villi appears to be reduced.