It has been proved that it plays an important role during the development and formation of new axonal terminals, the formation of filopodia
, the extension of neurites, and the axonal reorganization after neural damage (53, 54).
The live cells' visible filopodia
copied the pore walls and only few dead cells were observed (stained red; panel A, B of Fig.
Within this group, Cdc42 and Rac1 are involved in the formation of filopodia
and lamellipodia, respectively, whereas RhoA mediates cellular contractility and formation of focal adhesions (10).
The cells forming the stolon leading edge continuously form numerous pseudopodia (filopodia
and lamallepodia), which are the only places of stolon adhesion to the substrate (Fig.
Fruttiger et al., "VEGF guides angiogenic sprouting utilizing endothelial tip cell filopodia
," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
Some cells also displayed actin-rich plasma membrane protrusions, such as filopodia
and small punctate structures (microspikes) (Figure 3(a)).
Wang, "Fibroblasts probe substrate rigidity with filopodia
extensions before occupying an area," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.
Growing blood vessels are guided by highly specialized "tip" cells extending multiple filopodia
In addition, the bone marrow cells seeded on the small diameter Ti[O.sub.2] NTs extended many lamellipodia, while more filopodia
were observed on the surfaces of the large diameter NT and ICA-loaded specimens.
Bolasco et al., "Microglia remodel synapses by presynaptic trogocytosis and spine head filopodia
induction," Nature Communications, vol.
In rats, TM were shown to have a higher peroxidase activity , a greater major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression , and a greater number of filopodia