Note that all of the these problems could be traced to the lack of a finite verb
within E, which, if present, might simultaneously provide antecedents for the participles, turn E into an independent clause, and clarify the relation among the two sub-clauses by making one explanatory of the other.
inversion of the subject and the finite verb
is more natural than the absence of inversion.
Importantly in the present context, there are concomitant morphosyntactic differences between the verbal and nominal gerund constructions: in particular, while the verbal gerund allows for aspectual distinctions and adverbial modification as a finite verb
, the nominal gerund allows for neither (for further discussion of the gerund constructions see e.
Lexicalization contributes both generality and stability; the half-way house of syntactic nominalization, often favoured for impersonal scientific discourse, avoids many of the finite verb
forms that imply commitment to particular chronologies and truth conditions.
The "clitic (2ndPos)" column contains cases in which the clitic appears in second position after the focus of the question, which appears in first position (the finite verb
in case the question bears no special focus).
When a gloss follows a Latin verb which takes an infinitive, the finite verb
may be auxiliarised.
The finite-nonfinite distinction is the decisive factor, in the sense that clitics immediately precede the finite verb
, but they immediately follow the nonfinite verb, like gli 'to him', in Modern Italian, cf.
Beowulf 1109 betst beadorinca waes on bael gearu In Genesis A 1400, waes provides an anomalous finite verb
in anacrusis in an A-type in the off-verse (x/xx/x), and the on-verse is an uncharacteristically light, though not unattested or anomalous, type A3.
As I hope to show elsewhere, the second-syllable stress of most (pre-)PT finite verb
forms indirectly reflects the clitic status of PIE verbs in main clauses, but participles and other nonfinite forms could have preserved lexical stress, as in ancient Greek.
If, however, do or any other auxiliary was used, it filled the place of the finite verb
in pre-subject position, with the lexical verb being kept in its SVO slot.
In German, topicalization refers to a position before the verb, left of the finite verb
of the main clause.
To call the finite verb
form the "tensed form" cannot go back to the grammatical analysis of Old Greek, but what does have its roots here is the amalgamation of semantic and morphological finiteness.