There have been many studies in amphibian brain such as caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, Ichthyophis beddome, salamander and fire-bellied toad
(Naujoks-Manteuffel et al., 1988; Pinelli et al., 1997; Gramapurohit et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2007; Hauswaldt et al., 2007) and so on.
Indeed, the peptide, kinestatin, from the skin secretion of the giant fire-bellied toad
, Bombina maxima, was found to be an antagonist of high potency on mammalian bradykinin [B.sub.2]-receptors .
The fire-bellied toad
's belly markings are a warning to predators.
The potentially lifesaving proteins are found in secretions on the skins of the Waxy Monkey Frog and the Giant Fire-bellied Toad
This species had been previously isolated from animals such as armadillo, toad, spiny rat, opossum, nutria, the least weasel (Mustela nivalis), cattle, and the oriental fire-bellied toad
(Bombina orientalis) in Argentina, Peru, Panama, Barbados, Nicaragua, and the United States (1,6).
* Responsibly captive-bred reptiles and amphibians such as red-footed tortoises, lizards (bearded dragons, leopard geckos), snakes (corn snakes, king snakes, ball pythons) and frogs (White's tree frog, ornate horned frog, fire-bellied toad
, red-eyed tree frog).
These very diverse natural conditions have enable the survival of local species of plants like Suaeda maritima (seablite) and Puccinellia distans (sweet grass), of various animal species, such as the Danube crested newt Triturus dobrogicus and theaEuropean fire-bellied toad
Bombina bombina, as well as several threatened species of bat, like Miniopterus schreibersi.
The cast of creatures is quite diverse: anthropods: giant cockroach, Mexican orange-kneed tarantula; snakes: ball python, pueblan milk snake, Mexican milk snake, sinoloan milk snake, corn snake; turtles: eastern box turtle, ornate box turtle; amphibians: oriental fire-bellied toad
, Marine toad; birds: yellow-headed Amazon parrot, roller pigeon, American kestrel (small falcon), Harris hawk; mammals: chinchilla, opossum, ferret, and many more.
Some hypotheses on postglacial migrations of the fire-bellied toad
, bombina bombina (L.) and the yellow-bellied toad, bombina variegata (L.).
Some hypotheses on the postglacial migrations of the fire-bellied toad
, Bombina bombina (L.) and the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata.